In defense of gravity caps and color differentiation of pants ...

    Inspired by the topic Each nanosatellite has a gravitap !
    In the comments, people began to actively mock the possibility of the existence of alternatives to existing engines, and especially the possibility of such developments in our country. This upset me a little, and I decided to write this note.
    I must say right away that I am not a mechanic or a physicist and all my knowledge is quite superficial, and therefore the information that I will provide is taken from the network, but I am absolutely sure that the current situation with ICE (internal combustion engine), or rather, the lack of alternatives to them, is simple it’s just beneficial for the oil tycoons. And all the promising developments in these areas are bought up and “cut” in order to maintain their super-profits. The appearance of hybrids is connected only with the desire of the authorities of those countries that are not rich in oil to reduce their dependence on "raw material superpowers." And that’s why I’m sure that in our country such engines will not develop and be produced, except for maybe single enthusiasts.

    So, for the seed for today's news about the inertial engine and the word "nano", which has become tantamount to an
    exponent : Costing article from newsru dated (note) March 11, 2005. The words “modernization” and “nanotechnology” were not used then, and Russia was actively “getting up off its knees” due to oil tanks.

    A research institute of space systems (NII KS) near Moscow is developing a new generation engine that can be used both in space and on Earth.

    “For several years now, the institute has been working on the so-called propulsion system without releasing reactive mass,” said Valery Menshikov, director and research supervisor of the Scientific Research Institute. According to him, "scientists have already created a prototype engine of an unconventional type," ITAR-TASS.
    “The movement of the experimental apparatus is due to the movement of a liquid or solid working fluid inside it along a certain path that resembles a tornado in shape,” Menshikov explained. “At the same time, in the resulting motion effect, we probably observe an unknown phenomenon of the interaction of the working fluid with fields whose nature has been little studied, such as the gravitational field,” he added.
    “We have already managed to fix the thrust up to 28 g on the prototype, but it has been observed for several minutes,” said Yuri Danshov, head of the research institute of the CS. “It may seem that this thrust value is extremely small, but if such a thrust acts on a satellite weighing 100 kg for 20 minutes, it will be able to raise its orbit by more than 2 km,” said the scientist.
    The life of such an engine will be at least 15 years, according to its developers, the maximum number of starts is about 300 thousand. The power of solar batteries is used to power the engine.
    According to scientists near Moscow, the propulsion system can be used not only to control and correct the orbits of spacecraft and orbital stations. “This environmentally friendly engine may find application in air and land transport in the future,” Menshikov said.

    So this is not a dumb cut of modern money, but at least many years of development. And for those who are not a reader, but a writer, I want to give an excerpt from the above news:“In addition, the major general denied allegations that significant budgetary funds had been spent on creating a working prototype. “We performed all our research, we can say, on a voluntary basis. Experimental installations were made by enthusiasts with their own hands. You can now again calculate the cost of kilowatt hours spent, spent on experiments, bands of iron and electric motors. The amount is small and taken from the profit we received from the main work, "Menshikov told the newspaper." This is a word about sawmills.

    Well, a little about the alternatives ...

    Steam engines:

    At the beginning of the twentieth century, gasoline engines were not at all taken with a bang, but quite the opposite. Steam engines were much more popular, so at the beginning of the XX century the French company Serpole became widely known. The steam car of this company built in 1905 developed a speed of up to 120 km / h. The company offered for sale steam cars with power plants with power from 5 to 40 hp.
    Another interesting episode:
    Acquaintance at the final stage of the Great Patriotic War and in the first post-war years with foreign equipment, both delivered under Lend-Lease and trophy, testified to a serious lag in the domestic auto industry from the world level. Some types of machines in our country have never been produced, and foreign models had no analogues. A detailed study of foreign scientific and technical experience in the automotive industry was entrusted to the largest industry institute - US.
    In the first post-war year, work at NAMI was distributed in the following areas: gas turbine engines (head of the bureau A. A. Dushkevich); cross-country vehicles and amphibians (head of the bureau and chief designer B.V. Shishkin); development of issues related to the use of installations on vehicles using new types of energy (head of the bureau Ph.D. Vysotsky); gas-generating engines (head of the bureau S.O. Bruman); electric cars (supervisor Prof. G.I. Babat); cars with steam power plants (bureau director Yu.A. Shebalin, consultant S.V. Tatishchev).
    Professor Babat led the tests of the electric vehicles "Bleichert" EL-1800 and EL-2002, which ultimately led to the emergence of several models of domestic electric vehicles that were in limited use.
    The test results of the Sachsenberg tractor under the leadership of Shebalin and Tatishchev were discussed on July 2, 1946 at the NTS of the Minavtoprom. The results of the discussion were reported “to the top,” and on August 7 of the following year the USSR government issued Decree No. 2804 “On the mechanization of logging and the development of new forest areas,” which ordered the manufacture of a prototype forestry steam car. The decree also entrusted the Spetstehbyuro MLBP in Germany to manufacture a mobile power station, the Central Research Institute of Lesplav - to design a steam boat, and the Design Bureau of MLTI to develop a steam locomotive. Leningrad Thermotechnical Institute named after Kalinina, together with the Central Scientific Research Institute of International Economics, was to develop a steam tractor. After 3-4 years, all these works, except for a steam engine and a mobile power station, were curtailed for various reasons.
    The first prototype of a wood-burning steam truck was manufactured by US (developers Shebalin, Kurbatov, Tatishchev, Bychkov, Korotonoshko and others) in accordance with the period specified in the resolution. In addition to the steam car, NAM developed a project for the PT-54 steam tractor. In 1949, two NAMI-012 steam engines were manufactured. In some documents, the car is referred to as "0125". The car was created on the chassis of a truck YAZ (MAZ) -200.
    The steam engine had cylinders with a diameter and stroke of 125 mm. Power at a shaft speed of 1000 rpm was 100 l / s. The gearbox in the usual "automotive form" at NAMI-012 was absent. Instead, the “cut-off mechanism” was used. Change in cut-offs and reverse was achieved by axial movement of the cam roller.
    The NAMI-012 steam engine had three cut-offs for driving forward (25, 40 and 75%) and one cut-off for driving backwards (80%). When driving, if the driver had to use the clutch, it was only to engage a lower gear, otherwise the lever for switching cut-offs was enough.
    It is not very convenient to supply firewood to the furnace, similar to how it was done on a steam locomotive or in a village stove, so they tried to automate this process. Fuel from the vertical hoppers as it burns out under the influence of its own weight fell on the grate. One "refueling" with firewood was enough for 80 ... 100 km of run.
    In the first half of 1950, the first copy of NAMI-012 was subjected to comprehensive departmental tests with a total mileage of 12,000 km, as a result of which the USSR Council of Ministers decided to conduct state tests.
    State tests of two steam cars took place from November 1950 to August 1951. One car had a mileage of 26,000 km, and the other - 15,500 km. The car was recognized as a "workable design." At the same time, it was noted that the machine, due to the increased load on the front axle, has a low cross-country ability on forest roads. For this reason, on the basis of NAMI-012, an all-wheel drive car NAMI-018 was developed. We made two copies of NAMI-018, which were in trial operation at the Pervomaisk timber industry farm of the Gorkles trust and Chervensky timber industry farm in Belarus. Cars received generally positive reviews. However, they did not have the best dynamics - their speed did not exceed 20 km / h. True, there is nowhere to accelerate especially in the forest. Nevertheless, in the prototypes the problem of creating a vehicle was solved,
    By 1959, all work on steam engines were discontinued. It can be assumed that this was explained not so much by the fact that, with smaller dimensions, ICEs using gasoline, more “caloric” than coal briquettes and firewood of varying degrees of humidity, have a higher power, as much as the attitude towards saving and rational use of natural resources.

    My opinion is that if the same attention were paid to the improvement of steam engines as ICE, then we still would not know about ICE, otherwise it would be a misunderstanding and awkward development by enthusiasts of the beginning of the XX century.

    Centrifugal motor

    There are several implementation options. However, most of them are either based or “intersect” with Clem’s engine.
    As far as we know, Richard Clem died of a heart attack shortly after he signed an agreement with a coal company. Authorities visited his workshop and all of his notes and drawings were seized.
    The story we know is about this:
    A Dallas resident developed a closed-type engine that supposedly produces 350 horsepower and works on its own.
    The engine weighs about 200 pounds (about 80 kg) and contains vegetable oil at 300 F (150 C).
    Inside the engine is a cone mounted on a horizontal axis.
    The shaft on which the cone is mounted is empty inside and goes into spiral hollow channels inside the cone. They wrap around the cone and end at its base with nozzles (nozzles).
    Fluid is introduced into the central axis at a pressure of 300-500 psi, passes through the spiral channels and is injected through nozzles, which causes the cone to rotate. The higher the fluid pressure, the faster the cone rotates.
    With a further increase in speed, the fluid heats up, which requires a heat exchanger and filter. At a certain speed, the cone starts independent rotation, independent of the engine. The shaft rotation speed reaches 1800-2300 rpm.
    As soon as the inventor had a heart attack and his documents were seized, his son took one active engine to a farm near Dallas. There, he poured concrete at a depth of 10 feet, and the engine continued to operate at this depth for several years.
    From a further discussion it followed that the motor was tested by Bendix Corporation. The test was to connect the motor to a dynamometer to measure shaft power.
    Measurements showed that the engine stably produced 350 horsepower for 9 days, which struck Bendix engineers. They concluded that a source that can produce so much energy in a closed system for such a long time can only be nuclear.
    The engine design does not contain unconventional parts, with the exception of a cone with spiral channels and a hollow shaft.
    Richard Clem worked in the field of heavy engineering in a suburb of Dallas. He noticed that certain types of powerful pumps continued to work for some time after the power was turned off.
    His curiosity about this phenomenon led to the invention of the engine.

    In addition to the options with liquid in the engine housing, there are developments of engines working on the principle of the Clem engine, but without liquids, but due to the work performed by air molecules when their temperature changes. Tornado-based engines.

    Inertial propulsion

    An inertoid, an inertial propulsion device (the erroneous name is “inertial engine”) is a mechanism, apparatus, device that is capable of translating in space (or on the surface) without interacting with the environment, but only due to the movement of the working fluid inside. The possibility of such a mover is denied by classical mechanics.

    The first inercoid was invented by engineer Vladimir Tolchin in the 1930s. The Tolchin Trolley is a platform on wheels, at the top of which one or two weights move on the levers: slowly in one direction and faster in the other. Although no power transmission leads to the wheels, such a trolley comes in an uneven but directional movement. A similar effect (but with movement in the opposite direction) is observed when the inertoid is mounted on a floating model. In the mid-1970s, the topic of inercoids was extremely popular: these cars were shown on television, and popular youth scientific and technical magazines wrote about them.

    Instead of a conclusion

    This is what I remembered vskidku, not really rummaging through the network. I am sure that there are other projects of alternative ICE engines, but I strongly doubt that they will be developed and put into widespread production, for the reasons that I spoke about at the beginning of the article.
    PS In the end, Tesla achieved the transmission of electricity without wires at the beginning of the twentieth century, and commercial implementation begins only now. And I'm not very sure that this is a new invention, and not some old diaries, which, at last, were considered necessary to be pulled out of the special guards.

    UPD 1) There was a slight misunderstanding. The test, which is in italics, is not mine, so do not blame me for promoting “perpetual motion machines”, etc.
    2) As correctly noted SelenITthe “Inertial Propulsion” section doesn’t have a place here as it cannot be attributed to the engines that I actually wanted to write about. I will not delete it, so that some comments do not "hang in the air."

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