# Does Russia need aircraft carriers? - 2. What is an aircraft carrier

And now, slowly, about what an aircraft carrier is.
This construction is two and a half (or even three) football fields (the field is usually 110 m) and a height higher than an 11-storey building.
This structure must move. At least at a speed of 40 km / h.
American aircraft carriers fly at a speed of 33 knots. Those. 33 x 1.852 = about 70 km / h.
The aircraft carrier should have heat, electricity, water. People there must live, sleep, eat, wash. To be treated (appendicitis, teeth, lungs, etc.) too.
This "multi-storey building" has weapons:
- Cruise missiles (each 8 meters long).
- Several anti-aircraft systems with a bunch of SAM in the cellars.
- Two cannons of universal caliber with many shells in the cellars.
- Four MZA batteries. Each battery consists of 2 guns. The gun has 6 rotating shafts with a caliber of 30 mm each. The gun rate of more than 4 thousand rounds per minute. A short press on the trigger (foot) and 20-25 shells flew away. The battery is controlled by radar. And above is a fighter (fire control) behind the sighting column. When he sees a rocket diving onto a ship, he takes control of himself and sits in bursts on the rocket.
The film “Predator” shows a machine gunner with a machine gun whose trunks rotate. This is Hollywood. Such machine guns can stand (and stand) only stationary. Those. no one will be able to hold them in their hands and ammunition spits out in the leak. a few seconds.
To show where the aircraft carrier is shooting, it has the means of lighting the situation:
- Air(two radars with a large antenna at the very top). The station sees within line of sight, so it is placed as high as possible. The calculation of the range is simple - 4.12 x square root (inside the height of the target squared + the height of the antenna squared; the heights are driven in meters, and the range is obtained in km). Those. a target at an altitude of 15 meters is found somewhere at a distance of 37 km.
Comrade, engineer of the air group Igor U. carried out repairs in the VChB (high-frequency unit) of the MR-600 radar. It is in the VChB that the power of the radar is formed and transmitted to the antenna mirror illuminator. Megawatts!
As several thousand volts flashed through the sensor, already pierced through the trouser leg.
And this is subject to safety measures: with one hand to work with the equipment, a rubber mat under your feet, etc.!
"I know, Igor, why you stayed alive. Two little children with you would be very unfair to God to take your soul to yourself . "
- Above - water. This is an ordinary navigation radar operating in the 3 cm range. Usually there are two sets of them.
Antennas are either on the sides (left, right) or bow and stern, to provide a 360-degree view, the sailors are so accustomed to them that they can’t do anything without an NRL — neither go to sea, nor stand in the middle of the bay.
”“ Underwater.This is a sonar complex. It has two operating modes: “noise” and “echo”. "Noise" is when they just listen to the aquatic environment and that's it. “Echo” is when a reflected signal is received. Because the sound propagates at a low speed (1500 m / s), the radiation goes in all directions and the receiver “spins” in all directions. Surface ships usually operate on radiation, and boats are silent so as not to unmask themselves.
HAC antennas are located in the nasal bulb or under the bottom. There are also towed antennas. They have only large ships. Their main advantage is that it can be lowered in depth, under the “jump” layer. A “jump” is a phenomenon when in the sea the temperature decreases with increasing depth, then increases. A separation boundary is created from which the momentum sent from the surface is reflected from the “jump” to the top. Submariners love to go below the jump layer, and set the antenna above the layer.
- There is also a system processing information from all complexes - BIUS (combat information management system).
I list in order to make it clear how complicated everything is. Everything weighs tens, or even hundreds, tons. It requires power, cold, ventilation, maintenance.

And there are people. With apartments and without. With family life. They are sick. Members of their families are ill. Women give birth. They give birth to wives, lovers, acquaintances.
One gives birth, and several people celebrate, thinking that from him. :))))
Still people go on vacation. Receive clothing, food and cash allowance.
These are thousands of people!

People were taken seriously to Kiev. “Kiev” beat all conceivable and not conceivable records. He was the firstborn in his class. The only ship awarded the Order of the Red Banner in peacetime. He was the Red Banner.
Takr constantly went on long voyages, performed firing. He won the prizes of the Commander in Chief and the Ministry of Defense.
For all the time there were two plane crashes, but not one pilot died.
A lot of officers from the cruiser went on promotion. They knew about each of us directly in Moscow, because Arriving with various checks and commissions, they certainly could not pass by.
The officers on the cruiser were unusual. These were not people. These were the legends. You can write a book about each of them and in the series “Life of wonderful people” it will take its rightful place.
As for me, it was just lucky.

We, young lieutenants, walked and whined, that we didn’t like one, the other, the third. A Komsomol member who was older once said: “What are you whining for? Your officer team is excellent. And everything else is nonsense. ”
“And what are bad officer teams?”