The rarest and most expensive programming languages. Part II

    Recently, for Habr readers, I did a little research on programming languages ​​such as Rust, Dart, Erlang to find out how rare they are in the Russian IT market.

    In response to my research, more comments and questions rained about other languages. I decided to collect all your comments and conduct another analysis.

    The study included languages: Forth, Ceylon, Scala, Perl, Cobol, as well as some other languages. In general, I analyzed 10 programming languages.

    To make it convenient for you to perceive the information, I conditionally divided the languages ​​into two groups: rare (no demand and low supply) and popular (the language is in demand on the Russian IT market).

    The basis of my analysis, as well as last time, included data taken from the Headhunter portal, from the LinkedIn social network, as well as personal statistics of my agency. For a more accurate analysis of rare languages, I used the Amazing Hiring service.

    For those who do not know what Amazing Hiring is, I tell you. This is a special service that parses all the information about specialists from all over the Internet. With it, you can find out how many specialists indicate a particular language in their skills.

    So, let's start with popular programming languages.

    Popular languages

    Verilog, VHDL

    These main equipment description languages ​​are quite popular in the Russian IT market. 1870 experts indicated to Headhunter that they know Verilog. At the request of VHDL will drop 1159 resumes. 613 specialists write in both languages. In the title of the resume, the knowledge of VHDL / Verilog was taken out by two developers. Separately, Verilog is known as the main - 19 developers, VHDL - 23.

    They offer jobs to developers who know VHDL, 68 companies, and Verilog - 85. Of these, 56 are common vacancies. 74 vacancies are published on LinkedIn.

    Interestingly, languages ​​are popular among young professionals aged 18 to 30 years.

    Since VHDL and Verilog often go together, I demonstrate the approximate ratio of the number of resumes to the number of vacancies using the example of VHDL. For clarity, I singled out separately developers who indicated knowledge of VHDL in the title of the resume, which can be seen in the figure:


    The image shows the ratio of the number of vacancies to the number of published resumes. Red indicates the developers of the VHDL hardware description directly.


    Perhaps one of the most popular and popular languages ​​from the list. The language fell into all sorts of Stackoverflow ratings . It occupies the 18th line in the list of the most popular languages. He is also one of the favorite languages ​​among developers, ranking 12th in the ranking and, moreover, Stackoverflow ranked Scala among the most expensive programming languages. The language is located immediately after the Erlang programming language, taking the 8th position. The average global salary for a Scala developer is $ 67,000. Most Scala developers get paid in the USA.

    At Headhunter, 166 specialists brought Scala knowledge to the title of the resume. A total of 1392 resumes were published on Headhunter. This language is very popular among young professionals. Usually Scala comes next to Java. There are 2593 resumes on Linkedin, of which 199 are directly from Scala developers.

    If we talk about demand, then everything is more than good. There are 515 active vacancies at Headhunter, of which 80 Scala are indicated in the job title. On LinkedIn, 36 companies are looking directly for Scala developers. In total, 283 companies offer jobs for guys who know Scala.


    The image shows the ratio of the number of vacancies to the number of published resumes. Scala developers are indicated directly in red.

    In addition to the fact that Scala developers are in demand in the Russian market, they receive a high salary. As my agency’s statistics show, Scala developers are more expensive than Java developers. Now we are just looking for a Scala developer for one Moscow company. The average salary offered by employers to middle + level specialists starts from 250 thousand rubles.


    Perl turned out to be the most “common” on my list of rare languages. More than 11,000 IT specialists indicated Perl knowledge in the list of key skills, 319 of them put the knowledge of language in the name of the resume. On LinkedIn, I found 6585 professionals who know Perl. There are 569 active vacancies on Headhunter, and 356 on LinkedIn. There are fewer

    developers who have put Perl in the title of the resume than there are vacancies published. Perl is not only a popular language, it also belongs to the marketable ones. Here is the statistics:


    Stackoverflow statistics show that Perl is one of the most expensive programming languages ​​(world average - $ 69,000) and one of the most popular in the world. Over 4% of developers own Perl.

    Despite the high prevalence of the language, Perl has been offering developers jobs for a long time existing IT projects on the market. Over the past three years, my agency has never received a request to search for a Perl developer in a new IT project or startup.


    If you compare the demand for all popular programming languages, you get something like this: the most popular language among those used is Perl. There are a total of 925 job offers for HeadHunter and LinkedIn for knowledgeable Perl. Scala is not far behind Perl. There are 798 offers hanging on portals.



    The presented charts show the number of published vacancies for programming languages: VHDL, Scala, Perl.

    Rare programming languages


    The Forth programming language appeared in the 70s. Now the Russian market is not in demand. There are no vacancies on either Headhunter or LinkedIn. The resume indicated language skills of 166 specialists on Headhunter and 25 on LinkedIn.

    The vast majority of applicants have experience of more than 6 years. Specialists with Forth knowledge request a salary of the most varied from 20 thousand rubles and up to 500 thousand rubles.


    One of the oldest programming languages. Most developers are representatives of the older age group (over 50) with impressive work experience. This also confirms the recent Stackoverflow rating , which mentions that the most experienced programmers write in Cobol and Perl.

    In total, I found 362 resumes on Headhunter and 108 resumes on LinkedIn. The knowledge of Cobol brought 13 specialists to the title of the resume. As in the case of Forth, jobs for knowledgeable Cobol are not currently offered. There was only one job opportunity on LinkedIn for Cobol developers themselves.


    Developed by IBM and peaking in the distant 1990s, Rexx is one of the rarest languages ​​on my list today.
    186 developers indicated Rexx and 114 on LinkedIn in their CVs on Headhunter. However, on none of the portals I could not find vacancies for those who know Rexx.


    There is a demand for language, but I would not classify the language as popular. Headhunter has 33 vacancies and 11 on LinkedIn. The salary for the guys with the knowledge of Tickle is not very high: from 65 thousand rubles to 150 thousand. They indicated that they knew the language, 379 developers on Headhunter and 465 on Linkedin. In the title of the resume, ownership of Tcl was taken out by only one developer.

    This is how the ratio of the number of vacancies to the number of resumes in which the Tcl skills are met is:



    I have not met a single active vacancy that requires knowledge of Clarion. However, there is a proposal. 162 people indicated on LinkedIn that they knew this language, and on Headhunter - 502 specialists, of whom three made the skill in the title of the resume. Amazing Hiring found 158 professionals who are somehow familiar with the Clarion language.


    Developed by Red Hat in 2011. Based on Java. Hence the name of the language: Java is known as a coffee supplier, and Sri Lanka, formerly known as Ceylon, is a worldwide tea supplier.

    Language is really rare. There are no vacancies and almost no resumes. Headhunter managed to find just one resume. Amazing Hiring service provides a total of 37 specialists throughout Russia.


    If you compare all the rare languages ​​by the number of resumes, you get interesting statistics: on LinkedIn, most experts indicated knowledge of Tcl, and on Headhunter, Clarion turned out to be the most popular language from the list. The least popular language among developers was Cobol.


    My small analysis showed that Ceylon turned out to be a really rare language, there is neither demand nor offers on the Russian IT market. Also rare languages ​​include Forth, Cobol, Clarion, Rexx. Perl and Scala turned out to be very popular and popular languages. They can be safely removed from the list of rare programming languages.

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