Tectonics of the Russian population

    Russia is a patchwork quilted from pieces of fabric of different colors, textures and materials. The Russian Federation is not just the largest country in the world by occupied territory, it is also a huge melting pot, which includes representatives of various ethnic groups (the 2010 census totals more than 200). Who or what brings all these pieces together? Lomonosov and Tatishchev said that it was from the Varangians that they received only their nickname, “Russia,” and before that there were Slavs. Miller and Schlozer, German historians, said earlier that the Normans founded the Kiev dynasty. In the XX century, linguists formulated the theory of the ascent of the ethnonym "Rus" to Iranian-speaking roots, increasing the number of questions. Does the term “Russian population” apply to the Russian population and what is behind it in the new Genotek material.

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    Russian population


    In science, there is the term population, which describes a group of individuals of one species living for a long time together in a certain territory. Therefore, from a biological point of view, the term “Russian population” has a right to exist, but it is bewildering from the point of view of a person who is amazed at the number of nationalities in the census results. Indeed, the composition of our state, as well as the distribution of the population over its territory, is very heterogeneous. If we consider the results of the 2010 census as a reliable source, we can find that Russians make up almost 80% of the population of Russia. However, in addition to Russians, there are 6 large national groups: Tatars, Ukrainians, Bashkirs, Chuvashs, Chechens, totaling up to 10% of the population. Still, the Russian population exists.

    Shine and poverty of alleles


    This is not about language, not about culture and not about the broad Russian soul. Let's look at and prepare a group of people who live in Russia using methods of population genetics. Human population genetics studies the history of mankind, its attention is concentrated on the fates of the great alleles (gene variants). The most interesting patterns that researchers are trying to figure out are the distribution of allele frequencies in populations and their change during evolution. How exactly this happens, why so, and not otherwise, and who wins - the same historical science, only humane. One of the key concepts in this area of ​​research is the haplotype and haplogroup.

    Pop genetics


    A haplotype is an abbreviation for the haploid genotype, a set of alleles of those parts of the chromosome that are usually inherited together. As a rule, human sex cells contain unique combinations of gene variants that our parents mixed together, without the right and ability to choose what we get. A haplogroup is a group of similar haplotypes having a common ancestor, in which the same mutation took place in both haplotypes - a single nucleotide polymorphism, as a rule, haplotypes of the Y chromosome or mitochondrial DNA are considered (from father and mother, respectively). The choice of these sequences, on the one hand, is connected with the fact that you need to know for sure that the selected genes are a set from one parent, and not a mixture. On the other hand, mutations in these sequences accumulate and these chromosomes do not exchange sites with any other parts of the genome. Thanks to this, it is possible to track migration paths and talk about the degree of kinship of various ethnic groups.

    Refer to landmarks


    Recall the map of the settlement of nationalities on the territory of modern Russia. From ancient times, the Finno-Ugric tribes of Eastern Europe lived in the West. The ancestors of the Sami, Estonians, Komi, Mari and Mordovians lived there. The Central European part of modern Russia was occupied by Slavic tribes, just north of the Baltic tribes. Deeper to the north-east: Nenets, Enets, Nganasans, Selkups, Khanty and Mansi. To the east: Evenks, Lamuts, Udege, Nanai, Orochi, Orokov and Ulchi, as well as the Chukchi, Eskimos, Koryak, Itelmens, Chuvans, Aleuts and Nivkhs. In the south were Iranian-speaking, Mongolian tribes. In addition to large national groups, many small nationalities live in Russia. Some even have their own language, but that’s a completely different story. They are unique, their peculiarity is that mixing with the main population was small. Our goal is to create a common image.

    Inherit in the genome


    The ups and downs of empires, invasions, slavery, trade, war, migration - throughout history, different human groups have had many reasons for communication. Any interactions of this kind caused a sudden or sequential transfer of genetic material, creating populations with impurities. In most cases, the genetic heritage of the events of past millennia is unknown to us, and information from history does not provide a description of the full picture. I want to know more. Let us return to the history of the Russian people. If we recall the moments of “large-scale mixes”, the calling of the Varangians and the Tatar-Mongol invasion come to mind. These events, of course, influenced the composition of the genome of modern Russian people. However, we will try to rewind history several thousand years ago to see something fundamental. So, if you look at the map of ancient cultures, you can get a general idea of ​​how it all was then. Under the picture there is a decryption of which haplogroups are most characteristic for which culture. The world then seems simple and interesting, like a game of soldiers. Each culture has certain characteristic artifacts, by the name of which it gets its name (Culture of bell-shaped goblets, Culture of cord ceramics), and then they are settled on the map. Now you can also classify them in terms of haplogroups. and then they settle on the map. Now you can also classify them in terms of haplogroups. and then they settle on the map. Now you can also classify them in terms of haplogroups.

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    We made a description of haplogroups characteristic of representatives of the Russian population. It includes the most common: R1a, R1b, N, G, I.

    R *


    In 2013, a work was published about the Boy from Malta (emphasis on the last syllable), west of Lake Baikal. This boy lived 24,000 years ago in a mammoth hunter tribe. Genetic analysis showed that his tribe gave rise to many modern Europeans. The haplogroup of the found remains was named R *. R1a is considered the haplogroup dominant among speakers of proto-Indo-European languages. This language group is divided into Indo-Iranian, Thracian, Baltic and Slavic branches. To date, the haplogroup R1a is most common in Eastern Europe, as well as Central and South Asia, and the R1b group is in Western Europe. Representatives of the haplogroup R1 * as a whole are characterized by light eyes, fair hair and fair skin, which is connected with the familiar to our readersmutation in the SLC24A5 gene. In Russia, haplogroups R1a and R1b are common. Among Genotek clients, haplogroup R1a was found in 38%, and R1b in 9% of men. Initially, there was a hypothesis that the last common ancestor lived in the Balkans or in the south of Siberia due to the strong genetic heterogeneity of these regions, and then branching occurred - the nomads moved to Eastern Europe. The most likely scenario for R1a is shown in the picture.

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    N


    Representatives of this haplogroup are descendants of the East Asian branch of the macro-haplogroup formed in Indochina about 20,000 years ago. It is curious that this haplogroup prevails among the Finns, Balts, Yakuts, Udmurts, Buryats. Representatives of haplogroup N are found everywhere in Russia, often meeting in the Altai, Sayan, Mongolia, and Northern China. They passed from the east through all of Russia, spreading the Uralic languages, and stayed in Europe. Yaroslav the Wise belonged to this haplogroup. 13% of Genotek male clients are members of this haplogroup.

    G


    Today, haplogroup G can be found everywhere from Western Europe and North-West Africa to Central Asia and India. The frequency of occurrence in the population is quite low - from 1 to 10%, with the exception of 2 regions - the Caucasus and Central and Southern Italy (together with Sardinia). There the frequencies vary from 15 to 30%. Haplogroup G goes back to the branch associated with the second large migration of Homo sapiens from Africa about 60,000 years ago. Haplogroups of earlier migrants are found in the population of insular South Asia and Oceania, but the second migration route through the Arabian Peninsula went to the Middle East. The main branch of this haplogroup is considered the ancestral state for 80% of modern Eurasians. Haplogroup G was formed about 50,000 years ago as an offshoot of the main one.bottleneck effect . It is curious that Joseph Stalin belonged to the haplogroup G2a1a, this conclusion was made on the basis of the data of the DNA of his grandson. 5% of Genotek customers are also representatives of haplogroup G.

    I


    Haplogroup I is the oldest haplogroup in Europe, and, most likely, the only one that has formed on this territory. Its carriers came from the Middle East, an independent haplogroup was formed about 40,000 years ago. This was one of the haplogroups distributed among Cro-Magnons. In Europe, it splits into many branches. Among the descendants of her various branches are Nikola Tesla, Leo Tolstoy, Warren Buffett, Bill Clinton, as well as 17% of men who studied at Genotek.

    These haplogroups are most often found in representatives of the Russian population. Notice a word about the ethnic group and the Russians. Ethnicity is not a biological concept. Self-awareness, mentality, culture - these are things that depend on the genome only partially. You can react violently to what is happening and have a quick temper, due to the peculiarities of the work of neurotransmitters, but your worldview and attitude depends on your upbringing. You can find out your origin by passing the Genealogy DNA test with a 10% discount on the GeekAncestry promotional code . However, if at heart you are a Tatar / Bashkir / Pole or Mexican, then so be it.

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