English grammar as mathematics. Where to start for those who did not work out

    English grammar is amazing for its simplicity. It is very difficult not to love her: almost everything is logical, structured, it is clear if you know (of course). This is not a Russian, where you can say anything as you like, but it also has its own charm. Therefore, it always seems to me that nature simply shouts to people with a mathematical mindset that it is necessary to learn English and it is easy for them. Of course, of course, any exceptions, where without them, but in general, everything is logical.
    Let's say they decided, found some kind of motivation. So how do you start, where to go? From the alphabet? With irregular verbs? With pronunciation? You can approach as much as you like, but if your goal is to speak, it will be best to approach the teacher. If you cannot personally approach the teacher, come here.

    When you work with a teacher, you do not need to know the alphabet at the first lesson, the types of reading letters, the teacher tells you, and you repeat, that is, you hear by ear how children learn to speak. Therefore, we must begin with suggestions. The brain is so comfortable.
    I like it when they say at the first lesson those who: “I tried a hundred times, but still nothing”. I sum up to this in the following way: personal pronouns, be + adjectives (then, of course, you need to put them together in sentences). Google to help make yourself a selection or take ready.
    Next is the most important thing.
    There are a number of simple rules, knowing that initially you will have a different attitude to English.
    So, the "golden" rules or magic rules, with which I advise you to begin acquaintance with English.
    one.In English there are no sentences without a verb. An exclamation - maybe, but not an independent sentence. Want to learn English - rebuild. Suggestions of type: Late. I'm at home. Coldly. - there's no such thing. (“What then?” - a little later.) So, the verb is all over the head.

    2. The reverse side of the coin: without the subject of proposals, too, does not happen. Leave impersonal sentences in Russian (“It's dark. Cold. Killed!”) In English, it is crucial that there is someone in the sentence who performs this action.

    3. Hence the following rule: there is no sentence without a grammatical basis. Remember, in school: subject, predicate, addition and so on. So here, in English, no one has canceled. And most importantly - it is super-important. In the first place in the statement is the subject, followed by the predicate (that is, the verb). Let's go back to “Dark. Too late. I'm at home. Coldly". In the English version: It's got dark (= it became dark). It's late (= it is late). I'm at home (= I'm at home). It's cold (= it is cold). There is no basis (subject + predicate), you are not understood.

    4. Next: not always the Russian sentence can be translated literally. "And he is - on" will not fit in the "English head." Transform: start with the subject, then the predicate, then everything else. When you want to say something in English, linger for a second, rearrange the words in your head. Then you will understand. I often hear: “I was in London, no one understood me. I tell them, I tell them, but they do not understand. ” The root of the problem is in word order, word order, if you want. Especially if you talk a lot and quickly, the order of words will make it clear what it is ... In 100% of cases, my runner when they want to say: "I have a cat," they ask: "And how will I have and will have ? There is no sentence in English that would begin with "me." Not. “How, then?” - And then it is necessary to transform: I have = I have - here we have both the subject and the predicate.

    5. Separate magic rule is the order of words in the question. Write to yourself somewhere in large in Russian the “word order” or in English “word order” and repeat as a prayer if you want to be understood (and by the way, this will be easier with time).
    Keep a small but very necessary sign in your head to ask any question *:

    * there are questions that start with Who / What The
    question is, on what position will this “Who?” The correct answer is both 0 and 2. There are two types of question with “Who?”: Who / what is it? / Who did it? / Who is your best friend?  in this case, Who is standing at 2 positions, since this is a subject. And since this is a subject, we do not use the auxiliary verb (it’s impossible to say 1 after 2), but use the semantic verb in the necessary form.
    The second option is different from the Russian version: “Who are you with there?” Who are you there with? Since in the English the positions of the words in the question are fixed, we cannot begin the question with “with”.
    ** adverbs and adjectives also have their own word order, although the “understanding” of what you say no longer reflects will simply speak about your language level:
    Adverbs: how - where - when
    Adjectives: opinion - size - form - color - origin - material - purpose

    At the initial stage, this should be enough to start “thinking” to some degree in English, and not just about him.

    My advice, learn to ask questions first: in everyday communication, we usually ask and answer questions. Make yourself a challenge, write at least 10/20/30 ... (depending on your time and desire) questions for each time, questions with modal verbs, on any topics (10 questions in a restaurant, pharmacy, gas station, when renting a car, personal questions Yes, anything. My beginners usually write 100 questions a week. Work out the questions. Bring to automatism. Ask yourself (can be on a voice recorder), ask friends, etc. Do you want to ask here in the comments, I will rule as much as possible.
    Thus, when already in real life you encounter a question, you will understand it, which means it will be clear how to answer it. And to answer the question (from the point of view of grammar) is easier than to ask it, because we have 6 magic rule:

    6. What is in the question is also in the answer (of course, there are a few exceptions, but it sounds nice) .

    I will consider further how to “begin” further (for advanced ones, it may be completely uninteresting).

    Personal pronouns. Let's remember, in the English 2 case: the nominative (remember that this is the subject, yes?) And the other (let's call it “object”, in fact, this is all the other cases except the nominative).
    Me-I of
    of He - HIM
    She - her
    It - IT
    for We - us
    You - you
    They - them

    About these pronouns you need to know the following: the sentence begins with the subject, after it comes the verb: I see, I can, I am and so on.
    In this case, the verb will always go before the object : I see you. He sees me. I like it. She likes us.
    Subject - verb - object
    About you: the easiest thing to remember is that in English you are a plural, which means “you”. Therefore, the verb after will always be in the plural form.
    Possessive pronouns come in 2 types: the one after which there is a noun and the one after which it does not exist.
    - What is it?
    - It's my book.
    - Whose is this?
    - Mine.
    Type 1 (after it has noun)
    Type 2 (since it does not have a noun)
    the My-Mine
    Your Yours-
    a His-a His
    Her-Hers to
    Its- (do not say so)
    Our Ours-
    Their Theirs-
    There is demonstrative pronouns.
    This one - this
    One - those

    Principles of use as in Russian.

    Next we need to be.
    Be - to be, to be, to be, to be.
    Everything that we use after this verb directly depends on its translation:
    To be, to be, to be what, who, what, where, when, where.
    To be - where, when.
    Those. after be there are adjectives, nouns, circumstances of the place and time.
    Be has personal forms in the present (past) time that are tied to the actor: am (was), is (was), are (were).
    Am is used only with I.
    Is with the only number of 3 persons (ie, he, she, it).
    Are - with the plural.
    Very often (even very, very) be can not be translated into Russian (it’s in Russian, not English): I'm at home. I am hardworking. Why is tea cold?
    Sometimes in Russian this is another verb: for example, “Why are you late?” And in English, Why are you late? Because late is an adjective, and with adjectives we use be.
    It is with the help of be that we find out where something is located: Where is the theater / exit / entrance / bathroom?
    And with the help of him we express our discontent with the current situation: Why is it so cold / hot? Why are you angry / sad? Why is it so expensive? Why are you late?
    There are a couple of topics that relate exclusively to be, but about them later.

    To begin with, we still need to add adjectives to this set. Everything is simple with them: they have only 3 types (degrees: ordinary, comparative, excellent) and only less than 10 exceptions. Collect your adjectives collection.

    And then, those who still want to start, you have to be patient and make sentences: statements / questions / negations with pronouns, adjectives and be. My favorite rule in this respect: the more the better.
    But as? Better and in writing, and orally (voice recorder). Speaking what you write is very useful: you train speaking, the brain perceives by ear (drive into the translator, it will be voiced to you too), it is easier to remember and settles somewhere on the surface, and not in the depths.
    How to understand that the sentence is wrong? Put the numbers above the words: 1 - subject, 2 - predicate; in question 0, 1, 2, 3 (see the nameplate). By the way, you can check yourself with a search engine (but not a translator), and see what happens, look for the whole offer. If you are just starting, start with short sentences.

    Of course, if everything is clear, add nouns (I advise you to take by subject groups). For example, you have learned all the words from the topic "family". Now go back to possessive pronouns, ask questions with adjectives about family members, describe them (at first it is better to take only adjectives + be): Is your dad tall? Then take the topic of "food", for example: Is this cake delicious? And there are 100 such questions on each topic.

    Many wrote in the comments to my previous post about the winning words. Learning words is a necessity, it is important, but not the word itself is more important, but the possibilities of using it in speech, in different situations. Did you learn 100 words in a day? Cool! Now write the text out of them. Learned 100 adjectives / verbs? Fine! Now ask each with 1-2 questions (of course, both in writing and orally).

    Write in the comments questions, suggestions, what else to make out. Soon I will write about the times (of course, their analysis is complete on the Internet, but it may be someone who will interpret my interpretation).

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