The expansion of the universe is the greatest fallacy in the history of science


The cosmological (metagalactic) redshift is the decrease in radiation frequencies observed for all distant sources (galaxies, quasars), explained as the dynamic removal of these sources from each other and, in particular, from our Galaxy, i.e. as non-stationarity (expansion) of the Metagalaxy.

Graphically, it looks like this - Fig. 1.


Fig. 1 Graphical representation of the cosmological redshift.

The redshift for galaxies was discovered by the American astronomer Westo Slifer in 1912-1914, and in 1929 Edwin Hubble discovered that the redshift for distant galaxies is greater than for nearby ones and increases approximately in proportion to the distance (Hubble's law).

Various explanations were proposed for the observed shift of the spectral lines, for example, the hypothesis of tired light, but, in the end, they were associated with the effect of the expansion of intergalactic space in general relativity. This explanation of this phenomenon is generally accepted.

The redshift caused by expansion is often confused with the more familiar redshift caused by the Doppler effect, which usually makes sound waves longer if the sound source is removed. The same is true for light waves that become longer if the light source moves away in space.

Doppler redshift and cosmological redshift - things are completely different and are described by different formulas. The first follows from the particular theory of relativity, which does not take into account the expansion of space, and the second follows from the general theory of relativity. These two formulas are almost the same for nearby galaxies, but differ for distant ones.

The complexity of cognition of the world is that the conclusions from many observational and experimental data may be incorrect and then the picture of the surrounding reality is distorted. And although it is customary in science to bring this or that theory to a wide discussion, mistakes are inevitable. It all depends on how many followers supported the theory. The dependence of the Cosmological redshift is associated with an expanding space. This is a generally accepted theory.

However, another explanation of the Cosmological redshift is possible. This work is relevant in that it allows a different look at this phenomenon, not previously voiced by any researcher. This, in my opinion, is a step into new physics.

The purpose of the article is to show the dependence of the Cosmological redshift on the temperature of the medium of propagation of visible radiation. To solve this problem, we will use the experimental and research data of modern science. Planck's experiments showed that the frequency of black body radiation increases with increasing temperature. The higher the temperature, the higher the radiation frequency. This dependence extends to simple bodies. Thus, the higher the temperature, the higher the frequency of radiation (and absorption) of the substance, and hydrogen, including.

Consider the types of spectra.

1. The continuous spectrum - Fig. 2.

Fig. 2 The continuous spectrum of visible radiation

The spectrum of visible radiation is continuous. This suggests that in this spectrum there are all, without exception, the frequencies of visible radiation. A characteristic feature of radiation is that radiation of a certain frequency always lies at the same place in the spectrum. And there are no exceptions.

2. The line spectrum - Fig. 3.

Fig. 3 Ruled spectrum

The presence of vertical lines in the spectrum indicates that the spectrum does not contain some radiation frequencies and nothing more. Now, referring to Fig. 1, we can state that in the spectrum of position 1 there is no part of the radiation related to green, at position 2 there is no part of the radiation related to yellow, at position 3 there is no part of the radiation related to blue.

The spectrum of radiation in the visible range of any galaxy is continuous. Fraunhofer hydrogen absorption lines are superimposed on this spectrum. What is this talking about? This suggests that part of the waves of a certain length were absorbed by hydrogen. That is, as we approach the observer, some of the spectrum waves were lost. Of course, this has nothing to do with the radiation process and is associated with the environment of galaxies. The environment of galaxies is a hydrogen medium that absorbs part of the waves. I emphasize, this is the environment of those galaxies that directly emit waves in the visible range. This radiation is recorded only if it passed in a vacuum directly to the observer, bypassing any other galaxies. If this were not so, i.e. if radiation passed through matter, then it would be completely absorbed. On some spectra of visible radiation from distant galaxies, Fraunhofer lines are also superimposed on other frequencies of the spectrum, this suggests that these wavelengths are absorbed by the environment of the surrounding galaxies. Therefore, the superposition of the Fraunhofer lines is strongly connected with the hydrogen surrounding the galaxies, which directly emit radiation and near which radiation passes. But all galaxies are surrounded by hydrogen. So why are the Fraunhofer lines superimposed on different parts of the spectrum of visible radiation? And the farther the galaxy, the Fraunhofer absorption lines of hydrogen are shifted into the longer wavelength zone of the visible spectrum. There is only one answer. The temperature of the hydrogen medium surrounding the galaxy is different. The lower the temperature of the absorption medium, the shorter the Fraunhofer absorption line of hydrogen is shifted to the longer wavelength part of the spectrum.

Spectral series of hydrogen.

Studied Series:

Lyman series

Discovered by T. Lyman in 1906. All lines of the series are in the ultraviolet range. The series corresponds to Rydberg's formula for n ′ = 1 and n = 2, 3, 4, ...; the line Lα = 1216 Å is the resonance line of hydrogen. The series border is 911.8 Å.

Balmer Series

Discovered by I. Ya. Balmer in 1885. The first four lines of the series are in the visible range and were known long before Balmer, who proposed an empirical formula for their wavelengths and based on it predicted the existence of other lines of this series in the ultraviolet region. The series corresponds to Rydberg's formula for n ′ = 2 and n = 3, 4, 5, ...; line Hα = 6565 Å, the boundary of the series is 3647 Å.

Paschen Series

Predicted by Ritz in 1908 based on the combination principle. Discovered by F. Paschen in the same year. All lines of the series are in the infrared range. The series corresponds to Rydberg's formula with n ′ = 3 and n = 4, 5, 6, ...; line Pα = 18 756 Å, the series boundary is 8206 Å.

Brackett Series

Discovered by F.S. Brackett in 1922. All lines of the series are in the near infrared range. The series corresponds to Rydberg's formula for n ′ = 4 and n = 5, 6, 7, ...; line Bα = 40 522 Å. The boundary of the series is 14,588 Å.

Pfunda Series

Discovered by A. G. Pfund in 1924. The lines of the series are in the near (part in the middle) infrared range. The series corresponds to Rydberg's formula with n ′ = 5 and n = 6, 7, 8, ...; line Pfα = 74 598 Å. The series boundary is 22 794 Å.

Humphrey Series

Discovered by K. D. Hampfrey in 1953. The series corresponds to Rydberg's formula with n ′ = 6 and n = 7, 8, 9, ...; the main line is 123 718 Å, the series boundary is 32 823 Å.

The location of the series depends on the radiation temperature.

An alternative explanation of the cause of the Cosmological redshift from the standpoint of the influence of the propagation medium on the visible radiation of distant galaxies is a new word in science. Previously, none of the scientists expressed such an explanation of the Cause of the Cosmological redshift.

Fraunhofer absorption lines of a certain frequency with a hydrogen-propagation medium are superimposed on the continuous spectrum of visible radiation from distant galaxies. These lines are shifted to the long-wavelength side, which indicates a change in the properties of the propagation medium, and not the properties of the radiation itself (change in wavelength) and these changes are associated, primarily with temperature. And this, in turn, indicates that the Universe is heating up in its evolutionary development.

Scientists completely disregard the fact that hydrogen, depending on temperature, emits waves of different lengths. Accordingly, depending on the temperature, it absorbs waves of different lengths. Therefore, the cosmological redshift is due to the temperature in the Universe, the farther, the temperature of the wave propagation medium, and the medium is hydrogen, was lower.

Conclusion. What is the Fraunhofer line talking about on the continuous spectrum of visible radiation from distant galaxies? The continuous spectrum of visible radiation without Fraunhofer lines indicates that the spectrum contains waves of all lengths (frequencies) inherent in the visible spectrum. The presence of Fraunhofer lines indicates that there are no waves of a certain length (frequency) on the spectrum. The most common element in space is hydrogen. It surrounds stars and distant galaxies. Hydrogen absorbs quanta, carrying waves of these lengths of the visible spectrum. With this, let's say, defect, the radiation of the visible spectrum reaches the observer. The waves absent in the spectrum can neither lengthen nor shorten. They simply are not available, thus there is nothing to be lengthened. Their absence is due to their absorption by hydrogen, depending on the temperature of hydrogen. You just think how can something that is not in the spectrum change, lengthen? Initially, there are no waves of a certain length in the spectrum, and their length cannot change. This means that hydrogen can alternately emit (and absorb) waves of all spectral lengths from radio to gamma depending on temperature. The universe is not expanding, the universe is heating up.

This conclusion can be proved by experiment. One of the options for such an experiment is the gradual heating of an iron rod (or tungsten) in a sealed chamber in a hydrogen environment. Iron, and tungsten, starting from a certain temperature, emits a continuous spectrum of visible radiation. It can be heated by current. Record the spectrum with a spectrometer.

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