Communication evolution

    For me personally, there is nothing more pleasant to be on a business trip in some other city and after a busy day drinking a cup of tea of beer with fish and colleagues on various abstract topics. One of these evenings, we tried to restore the evolution of communication and the list of technologies and the names of people who, with their genius, gave an impetus to the development of our frantic information world. What was remembered - under the cut. But I got the impression that we missed a lot. Therefore, I am waiting for comments and interesting stories from you, dear Khabrovtsy.

    They began to remember from ancient times ...

    The party was in full swing when we began to recall the development of communications technology. The main idea is to recall everything that was somehow aimed at transmitting informational messages between people. The first thing that everyone remembered (seeing a colleague entering the room whom we sent for the next portion of foam tea) was a messenger or a messenger. History

    begins from the Stone Agemessaging. Then the information was transmitted by the smoke of fires, by blows to the signal drum, by the sounds of pipes through a developed network of signal towers. Later they began to send messengers with oral news. Perhaps this is the first and most effective way to transmit an urgent message between people. Such a messenger memorized a “letter” from the words of the sender, and then retold it to the addressee. Egypt, Persia, Rome, the state of the Incas - had a developed, well-organized mail. On dusty roads, messengers cruised day and night. They took turns or changed horses at specially constructed stations. Actually, from the Latin expression "mansio pozita ..." - "station at the point ..." and the word "mail" came from. 2500 years ago, the relay method of sending letters from messenger to messenger was already used. In the last quarter of the 9th century, almost at the very beginning of the existence of Kievan Rus, laying the foundations of Russian mail - one of the oldest in Europe. Only the communications services of Great Britain and Spain can be put on a par with it in time of occurrence. Stand alonecourier service , the history of which in Russia has more than two centuries. However, this is a special type of communication that served exclusively government officials and the military.

    Ancient letters are a recognized example of a culture of communication between people. Special paper was issued, perfumes for impregnating envelopes, cliches, sealing wax and seals - all this was in the order of things and writing a letter to another person was a whole ritual.

    Pigeon mail

    As fast as a messenger would not be, he cannot keep up with a bird. A huge contribution to the communication of people was made by carrier pigeons. A peculiar short message service - for a pigeon could carry only a small load, a short letter or even a note. However, pigeon mail was a very effective information channel used by politicians, brokers, the military and even ordinary people.

    Parameters of the device
    Flight range - up to 1500 km. ( competitions go from a maximum distance of 800 km.)
    Speed ​​- up to 100 km / h
    Flight conditions - any (rain, snow, how much)
    Service life - up to 10-15 years (with good care)
    Price - from $ 100 (the most expensive a Danish pigeon pigeon named “Dolce Vita” was recently sold for 329 thousand dollars)

    Passport of the most expensive pigeon (identification is based on the pupil of the bird)

    Almost any pigeon can become a postal one. These birds have an amazing ability to find the way to the nest, but provided that he was born there, stood on the wing and lived for about 1 year. After that, the pigeon can find the way to the house from anywhere, but the maximum distance cannot be 1500 km. It is still not clear how pigeons are oriented in space. It is believed that they are sensitive to the Earth's magnetic field and infrasound. They are also helped by the sun and stars. However, there are also disadvantages. Pigeon mail - simplex communication. Pigeons cannot fly back and forth. They are able to return only to the parent nest. Therefore, pigeons for informational purposes were taken away in special cages or machines to another place, where it was necessary to establish an “information channel”.

    There are probably thousands of stories and legends about the role that carrier pigeons played in human life. One of these is about the Rothschild family. The news of Napoleon’s defeat at Waterloo in 1815 was received by Nathan Rothschild through a pigeon two days earlier than official news, which gave him the opportunity to successfully conduct a campaign on the stock exchange with French securities and receive $ 40 million in profit from this transaction in 1815 prices! Even in our times, this is not bad. A typical example of the importance of information, especially in the financial field.

    Naval and military communications

    The most important place for communication is the theater of operations. Before the telegraph and wire telephone stations, semaphore systems were actively used (which is still surprising). Both iconic and light.

    Semaphore, or flag, alphabet has been used in the Navy since 1895. It was developed by Vice Admiral Stepan Makarov . The Russian flag alphabet contains 29 alphabetic and three special characters and does not include numbers and punctuation marks. The transmission of information in this form of communication is spelled out, and the transmission speed can reach 60-80 characters per minute. Strange, the training of sailors in semaphore alphabet has been abolished in the Russian Navy since 2011 , although in most naval powers in the world it is an obligatory discipline.
    Also interesting is the alarm system using special flags . Used by sea vessels. Only 29 pieces, which, as I understand it, should be known to everyone who goes to sea. Here, for example, are the first six flags. Some are quite funny.

    Wired connection. Telegraph, telephone, teletype ...

    Let's talk about electrical systems. Of course, let's start with the telegraph. One of the first attempts to create a means of communication using electricity dates back to the second half of the 18th century, when Lesage built an electrostatic telegraph in Geneva in 1774 . In 1798, the Spanish inventor Francisco de Salva created his own design of an electrostatic telegraph. Later, in 1809, the German scientist Samuel Thomas Semmering built and tested the electrochemical telegraph. The first electromagnetic telegraph was created by the Russian scientist Pavel L. Schilling in 1832.

    Of course, at this time, wired communications infrastructure began to develop rapidly. The appearance of the Morse apparatus and Bell's clever patenting of the telephone (debate over who still invented the principle of the telephone has not yet died out ) led to the first wave of computerization of the planet. It was an amazing time for the development of new technologies, which gave tens of thousands of jobs. Telephone operators, technicians, engineers, telephone and telegraph companies.

    Speaking of telephone operators. The requirements for applicants were high. The girl must be smart, have an excellent memory and good-looking. Probably, this requirement was because only men were the heads of telephone exchanges in those days.
    Of course, companies producing various telegraph equipment began to develop rapidly. Peculiar technological startups of the 19th century).

    Of course, it was important for the development of communication to introduce ordinary people to them. It was not rare to see such promotions on city streets. A telephone booth on wheels. Just like now.

    And, of course, people were interested in the task of transmitting graphic information. Since the invention of the telegraph, work began on the transfer of images. Mostly photographs. The first prototypes of fax machines were developed. However, it was possible to make an acceptable photo telegraph apparatus only after the Second World War. And to transmit the image over the phone and all in the sixties. One way or another, these technologies have appeared and they will no longer surprise us.

    As I understand it, in the upper right corner is the eyepiece of the video camera, and behind the screen is equipment for transmitting images. Bulky, apparently, was a system)

    The invention of the radio

    The real breakthrough in technology came after the invention of radio. Thanks to this, it was possible to get rid of the wires and establish communication almost throughout the planet. Of course, first of all, this technology hit the military. Almost immediately, the radio began to supplant the wired telegraph. But, of course, not immediately. The first radio equipment was unreliable and extremely expensive.

    Voice communication was not possible. Only the Morse code was used, but this was a real miracle.
    Of course, thanks to the invention of the radio, we owe the appearance of voice radio stations and cordless phones, then paging and cellular communications. The invention of television and the emergence of information networks, which are crowned by communication technology in our modern view, stand apart.

    In conclusion...

    Here is my personal dozen of the heroes of the Evolution of Communication. You know many, and some may not be familiar to you. In any case, these are the most worthy people of their time, which humanity will never forget. Although a little pathetic, but it really is!

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