As the crew of the aircraft is preparing for departure
We wake up, wash our face, brush our teeth, do exercises, have breakfast and start preparing for the flight. In major airlines, pilots have special tablets, and there comes information about the upcoming flight. That is, still at home at breakfast, I know the route, the data on the aerodrome of departure, arrival and all the alternate, the weather is everywhere along the actual route and forecasts for the time of flight. Usually there are all the necessary calculations right away so that we can familiarize ourselves with them, perhaps, to correct something or make a request. Something like "add fuel, take another spare because of bad weather."
This data comes from the airline. The airline has an agreement with special companies specializing in navigation, which fully calculate the route. It turns out 10-15 A4 sheets in English (some companies have only an electronic flight plan, so to speak, minimize paper workflow) on the route from Moscow to Yekaterinburg. They can also calculate from Moscow to Honolulu, they will have the same software work out. Then next to each other is a package of information on aerodromes: equipment specifications, radio data, repairs of lanes, taxiways, etc. If you know a specific board, then we already have the bulk of information about which aircraft, all its features are noted.
In the USSR, they could immediately give a solution like: “The weather is not flying”. Now the decision is always - for the commander, and he relies on forecasts and actual weather, may require to pour more fuel and so on.
Then we go to work.
Here and below, I describe a sequence that is not always such. Somewhere the order of actions may vary slightly, somewhere checks are wider, somewhere - already: it all depends on the type of aircraft. But, I think, the general idea will give.
In the airport
We go in the building. We see each other live, we receive documents, we greet, girls (flight attendants) - the brigadier and a conductor of a business class - come up, report that everything is in place. We give the conductors a flight mission so that they can go through the medical unit. The doctor puts a seal-admission and signs in the task.
Pilots usually pass a doctor after flight attendants. If the weather is not very good, then we take a fresh weather report (it comes every 30 minutes), and the final decision is made whether we fly or not. Somewhere in an hour we leave on the platform, we sit down in the bus, we go on the parking to the plane (both pilots, and conductors). In loukostera time is more short, it can be 25 minutes.
The decision depends on many factors. First, if the flight is short, then we rely more on actual weather. If the flight is more than an hour, then you should already look at the forecasts and analyze weather changes. Somewhere you know the arrival airfield well and you can be almost sure that meteorologists are not mistaken in the forecast, and at 9 am there will be no fog anymore. It is enough to give a delay for an hour and then fly. Another pilot, departing at the same airport, may decide that he will not fly out until the fog clears, he is waiting for the actual flight weather, and only after that does it take off. As a result, the first was in place at 10 o'clock, the second would be at 13, and its passengers would be unhappy. But the first one has a risk that it will be necessary to leave for the alternate aerodrome, and there is unloading, loading (loss of time), another flight - and in time there will be no gain,
When a pilot decides to give a delay, it is reported to passengers. If the weather at the airport of arrival is good, it happens that the reason for the delay is not brought to the passengers, because they start calling relatives, and there is sunshine and heat. And they start to worry and “get to the bottom of the truth”, they say, just say that the wing fell off on the plane, do not lie to us about the weather.
Two more flights flying on the same route may not fly at the same time for other reasons. For example, there is a minimum of the airport for the weather, visibility, less than which should not be for a guaranteed successful approach. The same minimum is in the aircraft and the pilots. The worst of these indicators is chosen. Most often it turns out that if a modern airport, then a modern landing system. The PIC has a lot of experience, the third category is ICAO, and the co-pilot is young, the first year on this type of aircraft. And everyone will wait until the actual weather meets the minimum co-pilot. And there is a very experienced co-pilot, he has experience as a commander, but the commander was recently commissioned (he was a pilot all the time, but only he became a commander) - his tolerances will be more limited in weather despite his experience.
Pilots know weather trends well. For example, in Norilsk, it has burst down - this is for a week. In Chelyabinsk, the sun will rise - in an hour there will be no fog.
We approach the plane
We leave in the parking lot near the aircraft and begin with the inspection of the aircraft. The PIC and the co-pilot inspect the aircraft according to a strictly established scheme: it is necessary to inspect all the main components. When we look at it, we already see if it is clean (snow is sticking, walking or predicted), and we say in advance that we need anti-icing treatment before departure. In our airports, processing is usually carried out in the parking lot by one or several cars (depending on the type of aircraft). In Europe, you often hook up to a preliminary start, there they pour it on a special platform from both sides.
There should no longer be files with “Remove before flight”: as a rule, they close the holes where any insects can get crammed, excess moisture, precipitation and the like.
Inspected. If everything is without comment, then boarded. There is a logbook, you need to read, check the nuances, view the work carried out by the technical staff (for example, the oils were refilled before the flight). We looked at it: it corresponds, there are no open faults. The plane is often tightly operated, so it happens that the passengers leave, and the new crew is already standing. Only everyone came out - and there our colleagues are already climbing outside. We still ask them necessarily, as a materiel, what comments, then we already read.
If something is abnormal - the last crew records, technical service eliminates. If nothing substantial - time for an hour of cleaning, refueling and maintenance.
We start to prepare. Preparation - we see all emergency equipment (emergency ax in the cabin, fire extinguisher, smoke mask, special gloves, etc.) to be available. Flight attendants through the cabin look, we check the cockpit. We check the condition of all aircraft systems according to technology: the amount and pressure of oil, hydraulic fluid, etc. Each company has nuances, each aircraft has its own check list. When we confirm that the aircraft is ready and in good condition, they begin to fill it with kerosene.
We are starting to hammer in the flight computer route. It is recorded from the flight plan. We stipulate the "distribution of roles." Usually (this is the established and recommended practice) in one direction one flies, in the other - the second. Here we agree, and one clogs the route, the second controls. Then we check the route in the computer with the plan: it is important for the flight with the autopilot connected on the flight level to follow the route strictly. Then the time comes, the plane is filled, we are all fine too.
The supervisor comes - we give the good, the people went. We are waiting for landing until they load luggage. The centering is sometimes contacted and clarified, they say, we have a dog, bees, a large medical load (blood serum) and a huge, but light weight, can we transfer it to another place. The centering schedule is the centering controller, but the nuances are decided on the spot. For example, a dog and a bee cannot be moved precisely, they should be lodged in a warm trunk. Pilots should be aware of what is being transported, because if something starts to howl in the cargo hold, it is not a malfunction, but the dog wants to eat. In a warm trunk, the temperature is almost like in the passenger compartment, and in a cold (unheated) after a while it will be very, very cool. But the exact details depend on the height, weather and duration of the flight.
Pre-flight procedures are done as follows: pilots go through all the instruments and switches, set them in clearly defined positions (or check that they are so installed). We follow very strictly what for what, in what position each switch. At this point, navigational instruments are checked as well.
Flight attendants close the door, from this moment begins the concept of "flight". The pilot requests exit conditions from the airfield area from the dispatcher: you tell him the train, he tells the lane (what course to take off), the exit scheme, that is, what route to follow immediately after takeoff, before contacting the next dispatcher. "Klimovsk 14 delta," - the pilots understand what the scheme is, they clog it in the route plan. We received the exit conditions from the delivery - we are moving to the start (taxi) dispatcher: somewhere - combined (in small airports), in large - separate. We request the launch or towing and subsequent launch (depending on the location of the parking lot). Begin to perform Before start procedure. Fuel pumps, flashing beacons are turned on, a fuel valve is opened, etc., depending on the type of aircraft, then a check-list.
That is, we check whether the aircraft equipment is ready to start the engines, once again completely.
On the ground outside there is a technician and monitors everything visually. In small airports, it is sometimes “on hand”, not on the radio (gesturing). Two fingers from the cab - we ask you to start the second engine. He also shows us two fingers - I allow the launch of the second one. The run has passed.
After launching and connecting on-board electric generators, turning on the hydraulic system, we carry out procedures for preparing for taxiing, that is, we include all the necessary instruments and systems. Here you can see how pilots move rudders, ailerons, for example.
Then we taxi to the preliminary start. Dorulili. We are transferred from the preliminary to the launch controller. We greet, say, where we are, ask permission for an executive start. If free - we occupy the runway.
Again, there is a verification procedure before taking off. Including include headlights. We performed the procedure, once again one reads the corresponding checklist (in this case, “Before take-off” - Before take-off), and always both pilots are convinced that everything necessary is included. Then we tell the dispatcher that we are ready for takeoff.
Give the go-ahead for good, we turn on the “flight time” on the clock. Next set the take-off mode of the engines. Then one of the pilots (who is not piloting in this area, remember, we agreed) reads the speed readings out loud so that it would be clear when the take-off can still be interrupted, and when not anymore. These speeds (V1, Vr, V2) are calculated by each pilot using the program installed on the tablet in preparation for the flight. At the desired speed, the landing gear rises, a positive angle of attack is obtained. Separation! V2 is reached (safe speed in case of failure of one of the engines), we remove the chassis, headlights, then the flaps. Go to the nominal value of the engine, at the height of the transition, we change the pressure on the altimeter to 760 mm. According to the exit scheme, we go to the line of the given path. Go to the connection with the dispatcher circle: we say the flight number and exit scheme. We already have a respondent, he says something like: "Identified, dial the 70th echelon according to the scheme." We do all the procedures, the chassis has already been removed, we remove the mechanization, we accelerate. There all the same procedures - again check after takeoff.
Well, then, actually, we fly.