Singapore Aging Dashboard

    Since the problem of diagnosing aging is central to the idea of ​​slowing down aging, we analyze all the approaches that are being implemented in the world on this problem. We want to develop the best diagnostic system of aging in order to subsequently evaluate the quality of interventions aimed at increasing life expectancy.

    August 6, 2018 A study was published in The Journals of Gerontology journal article "Biomarkers predicting death from all causes within 10 years."

    A study was conducted to determine effective biomarkers associated with total mortality from all causes. As a basis was considered a wide range of analytes associated with the six main physiological functions:

    1. cytokines, chemokines and growth factors; 
    2. regulators of glucose and adipokine metabolism; 
    3. adhesion molecules; 
    4. acute phase response (inflammation); 
    5. pathogen-specific antibodies; 
    6. bone remodeling. 

    The object of the study were 144 elderly people. Participants were recruited in 2003 and 2004, had an average age of 72.67 years (in the range of 56-92 years), and were prospectively estimated by mortality after 136 months. For a comparative analysis, a reference group of 72 young people aged about 21 years was recruited. After completion of the study in 2015 (that is, after more than 10 years), the results were summarized.

    88 (61.1%) elderly people from the observed group died during the observation period. The causes of death were as follows: 30 people died from cardiovascular diseases, 29 from neoplasms, 20 from diseases of the respiratory system, and 9 people from other causes. Basic sociodemography and general health of surviving and deceased participants were compared.

    The average age was 71.02 years for the surviving elderly and 73.72 years for the dead. Among the survivors were 14 former smokers, among the dead - 35 of these. There were no differences in gender proportions or marital status between the survivors and the dead. Dead elderly people had more concomitant age-related diseases than survivors.

    The presence of dementia, cardiovascular diseases, and neoplasms at baseline was observed in 7 (12.5%), 10 (17.9%) and 1 (1.8%) people, respectively, in the surviving group and in 14 (15, 9%), 26 (29.5%), and 3 (3.4%) people in the group of the deceased.

    45 (51.1%) and 19 (21. 6%) people who died and 22 (39.3%) and 6 (10.7%) people from the surviving group had hypertension and anemia. Also, the dead people thought worse, moved worse and kept their balance, had a reduced lung function and lower body weight than the survivors. The dead had a significantly lower score on the short mental state assessment scale (MMSE), a lower forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), worse mobility and Tinetti balance, and a reduced body mass index than the surviving elderly, indicating that signs of congenital impairment, lung function, mobility, balance and weight loss in the last years of life in deceased people.

    Then a comparative analysis was made of aging-related changes in physiological functions in three groups: the dead and the surviving elderly and young people. Significantly higher levels of cytokines, chemokines and growth factors, adhesion molecules, pathogen-specific antibodies and changes in bone tissue were found in the deceased and in the elderly who survived than in young people. In the elderly who died, high values ​​characteristic of the general response of the body to inflammation — the acute phase response — were observed. Surviving older people had lower levels of glucose regulators and adipokines than dead people.

    It was also found that the dead and the surviving elderly had higher amounts of extracellular DNA, a marker of cell death than the younger ones.

    At the next stage, biomarkers associated with all-cause mortality and specific diseases associated with mortality were identified. The researchers identified three specific leading causes of death: cardiovascular diseases, neoplasms, and respiratory system diseases. Thus, hepatocyte growth factor HGF was a common risk factor for the three types of mortality, with HRs (Hazard Ratio) 1.43 for all causes of mortality, 1.76 for neoplasms associated with mortality, and 2.33 for mortality, associated with respiratory diseases.

    Chemokine CXCL9 was associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular diseases associated with mortality.

    Platelet growth factor PDGF-BB levels have also been associated with neoplasm and respiratory disease mortality. IL-8, SICAM-1, SICAM-3 and osteocalcin showed a prognostic value with mortality of all causes and specifically from neoplasms.

    Specific prognostic biomarkers identified colony-stimulating macrophage factor (M-CSF) (HRs - 1.23), eotaxin (eosinophilus toxin) (1.22) and tumor necrosis factor TNF-α (1.25) for all-cause mortality.

    Chemokine IP-10 (HRs - 1.68), SCF (Skp, Cullin, F-box containing complex) (2.03), interleukin IL-1α (1.50) and resistin (2. 00) were identified as biomarkers for cardiovascular -vascular diseases associated with mortality.

    Stem cell growth factor SCGF-β (1.53), calcitonin (1.50), and glucose-dependent insulinotropic GIP polypeptide (1.70) were isolated as biomarkers for mortality-related neoplasms and respiratory diseases.

    This study was the first to describe that stem cell growth factor-β SCGF-β and glucose-dependent insulinotropic GIP polypeptide may be specific biomarkers of the risk of mortality.

    A total of 18 biomarkers of the main group were identified, predicting one or more types of mortality.

    1. Mortality from all causes:

    • Interleukin-8 IL-8
    • SICAM-1 soluble cell adhesion molecule
    • Osteoprotegerin OPG
    • SCF stem cell factor
    • Interleukin - 6 IL-6
    • Glucagon-like peptide-1 GLP-1
    • Facto necrosis of TNF-α tumors
    • Eotaxin
    • Chemokine IP-10
    • Cutaneous chemokine attracting T-cells, CTACK
    • Glucagon

    2. Cardiovascular diseases associated with mortality.

    • IP-10
    • OPG
    • Chikungunya
    • resistin
    • SCF
    • Growth-Adjustable Oncogene GRO-α

    3. Neoplasms associated with mortality.

    • IL-8
    • OPG
    • Vascular endothelial growth factor VEGF
    • IL-1ra interleukin
    • SICAM-1
    • Platelet Growth Factor PDGF-BB
    • Leptin
    • Monocytic chemotactic protein-1, MCP-1

    4. Respiratory diseases associated with mortality.

    • Glucose-dependent insulinotropic GIP polypeptide
    • Fibrinogen
    • Cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin G CMV IgG
    • Helicobacter pylori
    • IL-6
    • SCF
    • Resistin
    • CTACK
    • Glucagon
    • Leptin
    • Ferritin
    • GLP-1

    A source

    The authors
    Lu Y, Camous X, Andiappan AK, Rotzschke O, Ng TP, Larbi A. — Агентство по научным технологиям и исследованиям и Национальный университет Сингапура, Сингапур.
    Monaco G. — Институт старения и хронической болезни Университета Ливерпуля, Великобритания.
    Ng TP — Университет Туниса, Тунис.
    Larbi A — Исследовательский центр по проблемам старения, Университет Шербрука, Канада

    Appendix 1. Common biomarkers for frailty and singapore panel.

    1. Interleukin - 6 IL-6
    2. Interferon gamma inducible protein (IP-10) (another designation - CXCL10, CXC motif chemokine 10).
    3. Resistin.
    4. Leptin.
    5. SICAM-1 soluble cell adhesion molecule
    6. Ferritin

    Prepared by: Alexey Rzheshevsky.

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