"Computer Engineering and its Application" (November 1990)

    At my place, as it turned out, I kept a small stack of shabby computer magazines, 10 years old and older. Immersion in these pages is not only pleasant nostalgia, but also a very interesting insight into the values ​​and aspirations of that time. In addition, I would like to keep all this information in a more durable form than paper pages.

    I am going to post here a selection of materials from these magazines, indicating the publication and authors; since so far all these texts have not existed in digital form, the UFO is unlikely to have a claim to me for copy-paste.

    The oldest surviving number - " Computer Engineering and its Application"November 1990. The theme of the issue is Norton Commander. On the cover are three undefined computers with the logos of IBM, AT&T and Apple. At the back there is another undefined computer with some CAD on the screen, a quote from V. Glushkov , and the editorial address is" USSR , Moscow, Center, Serov passage, 4 "- even without an index. Price 20 kopecks. Authors of the issue: (I wonder if they live on the Habré?) KLYAUS Sergey Vitalievich - a researcher, is engaged in the development of software for ACS, DBMS and data transfer systems . Slobodchuk Vyacheslav - researcher, engaged in the research and discharging the work of local computer networks.ZHARIKOV LN, SUKHORUKOV FD - programmers.

    This article aims to familiarize users of personal computers with the file monitor “Norton commander“. The article provides fairly complete information about practical methods of working with this package, it describes the main features and features of version 2.0.

    S.V. Klaus


    One of the characteristic features of the development of our society at the moment is the widespread introduction of electronic computer technology. This process acquired particular intensity with the advent of personal computers. It is difficult to imagine any sphere of human activity, where there would be no attempt to implement a personal computer. The operation of a PC, in turn, is not conceivable without the operation of software. And the main among an infinite number of software products is, of course, the operating system.

    With the increase in the personal computer fleet in our country, the most popular are IBM AT / XT computers and their clones from various types of foreign machines and EC 1840/41 type PC computers from domestic machines.

    Of the operating systems suitable for these computers, the most widely used is the MS-DOS disk operating system. The basic MS-DOS commands have simple syntax and do not require much effort to remember them. However, with an increase in the number of floppy disks and files that are in use by the user, difficulties with working with a PC increase, since it requires storing the names of directories, files, their contents, etc. In such a situation, working with a “bare” DOS becomes a very tedious task, which requires patience and a significant investment of time. To simplify these actions, special tools are created, a kind of add-ons for DOS, allowing you to execute most commands without typing their mnemonic code and options.

    One of the first tools a personal computer user encounters is often the Norton commander software package, hereinafter NC. The popularity of this tool is extraordinary. Yes, this is understandable. Having a “friendly” interface, it is extremely easy to learn and creates a lot of convenience when working with files and diskettes.

    A programmer using NC, without leaving it, can develop and run their programs and packages; Pre-memorize and execute MS-DOS commands, which subsequently allows you to avoid redialing them and saves you from routine work. NC thus plays the role of an add-on over MS-DOS. Such programs are often called file monitors. 1 *) (this designation is deciphered in the notes).

    After the application program or MS-DOS command selected by the user is completed, it returns to NC operation.

    The appearance (image on the monitor screen) of the operating NC may have the form shown in Fig. 1. 2 *) The full-screen form includes four main components:
    • left panel
    • right panel
    • command line (located under the panels and begins with the indication of the active drive);
    • hint line (located under the command line, it contains a list of used function keys and briefly indicates the corresponding actions).

    The basic operations performed by the NC are shown in the prompt line, and when the corresponding function keys are pressed, they allow you to perform the following actions:

    1Help - F1 or F1 (for PC computers such as EC1840, EC1841), displays a brief instruction for working with NC;

    2User - F2 (Ф2), activates the menu of procedures previously created by the user; one of the possible options is shown in Fig. 2;

    3View - F3 (ФЗ), allows you to view the selected file;

    4Edit - F4 (Ф4), makes it possible to edit a file up to 31 kB in size. With a larger volume, editing is not possible, but transition to viewing is allowed;

    5Soru - F5 (F5), allows you to copy a file (a group of marked files) both from one diskette to another and within the same directory, but in the latter case, a difference in the names of the copied and new files is necessary;

    6RenMov - F6 (Ф6), used to move or rename a file (group of marked files);

    7Mkdir - F7 (Ф7), suggests creating a new subdirectory in the current directory;

    8Delete - F8 (Ф8), leads to the destruction of a pre-selected file (group of marked files after confirmation);

    9Menu - F9 (Ф9), activates the NC menu, which is then displayed as the top line - prompts;

    10Quit - F10 (F10), stops the NC and frees up memory.

    Consider the implementation of some operations in more detail.

    I. When the function key F1 (F1) is pressed, the “Help“ table is displayed on the monitor screen, which contains a short list of NC commands and options (Fig. C). The table recalls that NC was created by John Socha and has five sections:

    1. The “CURSOR MOVEMENT“ section informs about the cursor movement control options:
    • “Char left“ - one position to the left is achieved by pressing the keys “Ctrl-S“ (“UPR-S“);
    • “Char right“ - one position to the right by pressing “Ctrl-D“ (“UPR-D“);
    • “Word left“ - one word to the left “Ctrl-A“ (“UPR-A“);
    • “Word right“ - one word to the right “Ctrl-F“ (“UPR-F“).

    2. Section “DELETE“ informs about the possibilities of deleting characters and words:


    I skip 15 pages on which all menus and all NC modes are examined in detail, then a summary of all the hot keys and a glossary follows. In fact - an unofficial "Russification" of the user manual, even the names of the control keys are Russified. A coherent text - a minimum; it is clear and without any idea that the author of the article is a researcher, and never a journalist.

    In the USSR, several versions of NC were spread. This article covers experience with version 2.0, but the user who has mastered the described steps will be able to choose the most suitable version for himself.

    The next article is about how to create your own NC-like UI.

    Do you write in C and want your programs to have the same beautiful and convenient appearance as the well-known Norton Commander, dBase or Multi-Edit? If so, it makes sense to use the Vitamin C package. This article will allow you to master it.

    V.V. Slobodchuk



    If you use MicroSoft C, then:
    1) Copy 8 files with the extension. H to the directory where all the. H files of your compiler are located.
    2) Find the line in the VCSTDIO.H file
        #define ???
    and convert it to
        #define MSC.

    3) Find the line VCSTDIO.H in the file
        #include <mscstdio.h>
    and convert it to
        #include <stdio.h>.

    4) Copy the files with the extension .LIB to the directory where all the library files of your compiler are located.

    Vitamin C is ready to use.

    If you use any other C-compiler (Turbo C, Lattice C, etc.), in p.p. 2 and 3 instead of the abbreviation "MSC" you need to use the abbreviations TC, LC, etc. (see the comment at the beginning of the VCSTDIO.H file).

    In addition, the ready-made Vitamin C libraries are not suitable for you (they are built for MicroSoft C). It is necessary to recompile all sources (all files with the extension. C) and build a new library. The modules VCVlOxxy.OBJ and VCVGAxxy.OBJ should also be included in this library, where instead of xx there should be a TC or LC, or AZ, etc. y is the designation of the memory model (I - large, s - small, ...).


    Instead of the words “Vitamin C package” we will use the abbreviation VC below.

    ATTRIBUTES are just the color of the characters and background. For example, we can say that the color of the string attributes is bright red letters on a blue background.

    SCREEN OUTPUT - a set of functions that display something on the screen.

    SCREEN INPUT - a set of functions that enter data from the keyboard (!)


    In essence, VC is a library of a wide variety of functions (there are more than 300 in total) that allow you to create windows, menus, control the cursor, etc.

    To use them, you are required to fulfill one condition: DO NOT USE any on-screen I / O functions other than VC functions.

    puts () <- no! vcputs () <- yes!
    printf () <- no! vcgets () <- yes!
    scanf () <- no! vcprint () <- yes!

    The structure of all programs using VC is the same:

    #include <vcstdio.h>
    main ()
      vcstart (option);
      vcend (option);

    The FIRST LINE of TEXT, other than the comment, should be the instruction to include the VCSTDIO.H file. The FIRST EXECUTIVE LINE of the program should be a call to the vcstart () function. Before the program terminates, the vcend () function must be called. The rest is not regulated.

    Vcstart () function:
    VOID vcstart (option)
    COUNT option;

    This function initializes the VC. Its parameter can take the values ​​of CLRSCRN, then when the VC is initialized, the screen is cleared; or SAVESCRN - then the screen remains unchanged.

    Do not be surprised to see unfamiliar types COUNT, TEXT, etc. in the descriptions or constants like SAVESCRN. These standard types and constants for VC are defined in the VCDEF.H file. It automatically connects to your program.

    Vcend () function:
    VOID vcend (option)
    COUNT option;

    The option parameter can be set to CLOSE, then all windows open at the time the program terminates are closed; or NOCLOSE - then the program results remain on the screen.


    Next, there are 20 pages with a description of the functions of the package, examples of their use, and an AMAZING CAPS for expressing emotions that overwhelm the author.

    The magazine closes with instructions for the Russification of the Star LC-15 matrix (remember this screaming A3 monster with a side wheel for manually scrolling paper?), And finally - the only advertisement page in its entire issue that looks more like a spare parts catalog.

    L.N. Zharikov, F.D. Sukhorukov


    One of the first problems facing users of personal computers such as IBM PC XT / AT is the Russification of the printer. The most reliable way to do this is to replace the permanent memory microchip in which the tables of national fonts are stitched, but this method is too expensive for many and requires finding an organization that would do such a job. With another method of Russification, the desired font is created by a special program.

    Many well-known application systems focused on working with texts make it possible to work with the Russian font and print texts in graphic mode on almost any matrix printer. Such systems are, for example, LETTRIX and LEXICON. The texts are obtained of a sufficiently high quality, but are printed so slowly that they are practically unsuitable for use in debugging, when you need to quickly get the current copy of the program text.

    Often, another method of Russification of the printer, with which you can get a quick dot font. Most modern dot-matrix printers have their own processor, permanent and random access memory, which allows, in particular, to load dot national fonts in the second half of the character code table. We used this method.

    Readers are invited to a program written in Turbo-PASKAL language, to some extent helping to solve this problem for nine-needle printers such as Epson. The program is tested on a Japanese-made printer LC15 Star.

    To get a dot font, all lowercase and capital letters of the Russian alphabet were encoded. The principles of font encoding are set forth, for example, in the book of V. Bryabrin. “Personal computer software” (M., Nauka, 1989).

    All information about each character is in the S array (see program text). The program is quite simple. The necessary explanations are given in the comments. Before using this program, you must configure the printer and compile it in the Turbo-PASKAL system. The entire printer setup consists in setting the use mode of the downloaded font and selecting one of the alternative code tables with the switches that are installed on the printer control panel.

    The functionality of each switch is described in the manual that came with the printer.

    If you make some changes to the program, it can be used to Russify other types of printers.

    Program LC15Rus;
      S : array[1..768] of byte =  
    {A} (139, 0, 30, 32, 72, 128, 8, 128, 72, 32, 30, 0,
    {Б}139, 0,254, 0,146, 0,146, 0,146, 0,140, 0,
    {B}139, 0,254, 0,146, 0,146, 0,146, 0,108, 0,
    {Г}139, 0,254, 0,128, 0,128, 0,128, 0,128, 0,
    {Д}139, 3, 0, 62, 64, 130, 0,130, 0,254, 0, 3,
    {E}139, 0,254, 0,146, 0,146, 0,146, 0,130, 0,
    {ы}139, 0, 62, 0, 10, 0, 10, 0, 4, 0, 62, 0,
    {ь}139, 0, 62, 0, 10, 0, 10, 0, 10, 0, 4, 0,
    {э}139, 0, 20, 34, 0, 34, 8, 34, 8, 34, 28, 0,
    {ю}139, 0, 62, 0, 8, 0, 28, 34, 0, 34, 28, 0,
    {я}139, 0, 18, 0, 44, 0, 40, 0, 40, 0, 62, 0 );
      Esc : char;
    ProcedureLoadDraft(M, N, L : byte);var i j : byte;
      Symbol : char;
    beginfor i: = M to N dobegin
        Symbol:= Chr(L+i);
        {Установка режима загрузки точечного шрифта}Write(lst,Esc, '&' , Chr(0),Symbol,Symbol);
        {Загрузка символа}for j:-i*12-11to i*12doWrite(lst,Chr(S[j]));
        {Инициализация символа}Write(lst,Esc,'%', Chr(1));
    end; { LoadDraft }begin
      {Установка межстрочного интервала 13/216 дюйма }Write (lst,Esc, 'A', Chr(13),Chr(10));
      [Загрузка русского шрифта в принтер и его инициализация }

    V. Shokhan, student of the Minsk Radio Engineering Institute

    Formatting Tricks

    Many users of the Soviet staffers of the EU 1840, EC1841, if they suspect, but do not know that the floppy disks for these computers can be formatted for 720 KB. Those. on a floppy disk, instead of two sides of 360 Kbytes, there will be one at 720 K. Advantages: you do not need to remember on which side of the disk what is written down, you can record programs occupying more than 360K, etc. This formatting can be done in various ways. For those who use the MS operating system. DOS 3.3 is best done using system external commands DM8 and FORMAT. To do this, from the command line enter:
    DM8 / F / Q x:
    where x: is the side to be formatted (for example, a: or b :)


    software for computer users BK-0010,0010.01, DVK-2M, ZM, UKNTs of computer science classes KUVT-86, KUVT-UKNTs.

    The cooperative has an extensive bank of gaming, training, system, and application programs.

    Prices are much lower than state.

    Lists of programs when specifying the type of computer are sent free of charge.

    FOR USERS BK-0010,001010.01:
    • software development that allows to place three times more programs on each user's cartridge compared to the traditional recording method, with a multiple increase in reliability (any type of tape recorder);
    • inexpensive telephone modem based on BK-0010, 0010.01.

    Correspondence address: 189510, Leningrad, PO Box 649.

    COMPUTER CENTER PSMO "Severovostokenergostroy"

    implements smart terminals EC-8534.03 (see the article in the collection “Computer Engineering and its Application". - 1989. - No. 12. - P.14), which are micro-computers that can work as PCs with the ability to transmit data over switched channels public telephone network and PD-200.

    Contact the address: 681015, Komsomolsk-on-Amur, Kirova St., 16.

    Phone: 4-89-21.


    offers users personal computers PC, Sinclair, Commodore-64, Atari, Yamaha, Radio-86RK, Mikrosh, Krista, Partner, Lviv, Specialist, Vector, BK-0010 / 0010.01 / 0011, UKNTs, Corvette, DVK-2 / -3 wide selection of programs and documentation.

    Our address: 614010, Perm, PO Box 4694.

    I’m even afraid to imagine how Soviet programmers retyped from a magazine a petite listing, to, consisting of monotonous lines of meaningless numbers. But they really had no choice - either to Russify imported equipment with their own hands, or to print the text in graphic mode pixel by pixel, as advanced editors like the Lexicon could. The 25-year history of Lexicon, this dreadnought of domestic software engineering, is present in pieces in almost every magazine I found: development, becoming a commercial product, a desperate fight against piracy, and inglorious oblivion in the era of the “free” MS Office. I am going to devote the following selection to "Lexicon".

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