Combat railway missile system Molodets

    BZHRK - RT-23 UTTX Molodets military railway missile system (according to NATO classification SS-24 Scalpel).

    According to experts, this is the most formidable weapon that has ever existed on earth. It was created by teams led by brothers Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences Vladimir Fedorovich Utkin and academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences Alexei Fedorovich Utkin.

    History of creation.

    The very idea of ​​creating such a project was unprecedented.
    The order "On the creation of a mobile combat railway missile complex (BZHRK) with the RT-23 missile" was signed on January 13, 1969. The head developer was appointed Design Bureau "Southern".

    Here is what Vladimir Fedorovich Utkin said about this: “The task that the Soviet government set before us was striking in its grandeur. In domestic and world practice, no one has ever encountered so many problems. We had to place an intercontinental ballistic missile in a railway carriage, but a missile with a launcher weighs more than 150 tons. How to do it? After all, a train with such a huge load should go along the national roads of the Ministry of Railways. How to transport a strategic missile with a nuclear warhead in general, how to ensure absolute safety on the way, because we were given a design speed of up to 120 km / h. Will the bridges withstand, will the track fail, and the start itself, how to transfer the load to the railway track at the start of the rocket,
    To create such a complex required a huge amount of new solutions.
    One of the main problems was the mass of the rocket and the launcher, the rocket with TPK should weigh no more than 130 tons, otherwise the railway track could not stand it, which means that new materials are needed; a rocket cannot be longer than a regular refrigerator car, but such shorties were not created in the design bureau.
    Then it was decided to remove the nozzles in the engines themselves, although the world practice of rocket science did not know such solutions. A head fairing protrudes from the other end of the car, it cannot be without it - there will be no accuracy, at first they made it an inflatable, but, according to calculations, it could not have overcome the barrier of nuclear missile defense missiles, and then a metal folding fairing was designed!
    In order for the fire tail of the rocket not to burn, everything in the district used a powder engine that pushes the rocket to a small height.
    Next, the rocket maneuver engine was turned on, and the gas jet of the rocket propulsion engine passed by cars, a container and a railroad track.

    Flight tests of the RT-23UTTX (15ZH61) rocket were carried out from February 27, 1985 to December 22, 1987 at NIIP-53 (Mirny), a total of 32 launches were made. 18 train exits to resource and transport tests were carried out, during which more than 400 thousand kilometers were covered by the country's railways. Tests were carried out in various climatic zones from Salekhard in the north to Chardzhou in the south, from Cherepovets in the west to Chita in the east.

    The first missile regiment with the RT-23UTTX missile took up combat duty on October 20, 1987 (Kostroma, commander V.Yu. Spiridonov).
    The last missile system was withdrawn from service in 2005.

    The composition of the complex

    The composition of the BZHRK includes a train of a standard configuration for the complex:
    • three three-car launch modules with ICBM RT-23UTTKH;
    • command module consisting of 7 cars;
    • tank car with reserves of fuels and lubricants;
    • three diesel locomotives DM-62.

    Command module, which feature is increased protection against powerful electromagnetic radiation of the contact network. Unique special communications antennas have been developed for him, which are guaranteed to provide the reception of combat control signals through the transparent roofs of the cars. Outside, it was impossible to bring them out, since the BZHRK should be like an ordinary train in everything.

    Complex characteristics

    • Firing Range, km 10100
    • Firing accuracy (maximum deviation), km 0.2-0.5
    • Starting weight, t 104.50
    • Flight Reliability 0.98
    • The coefficient of energy-weighted perfection of the rocket Gpg / Go, kgf / tf 31
    • Missile length, m
      - full 23.3
      - without warhead 19.0
      - in TPK 22.6
    • Payload weight, kg 4050


    • Dimensions, m:
      - length 23.6
      - width 3.2
      - height 5.0
    • Speed, km / h 80
    • Resistance of BZHRK to a shock wave, kg / cm2
      - in the longitudinal direction 0.3
      - in the transverse direction 0.2

    When moving along the country's railway network, the BZHRK allowed to quickly change the location of the launch position to 1000 kilometers per day.

    Missile trains have become a constant headache for Americans. The Pentagon spent more money tracking them than the Utkin brothers did. Twelve reconnaissance satellites searched for them all over our country and even from space they could not distinguish these ghost trains from ordinary refrigerators.

    The last place of deployment.

    Unenviable fate

    In the early 90s, our potential opponents turned into almost friends, but also potential ones. We blew mines, cut rockets.
    The Americans hastily allocated money to destroy the hated missiles and even provided the latest cutting machines.
    For the disposal of "rocket trains" at the Bryansk repair plant of the Strategic Missile Forces, a special "cutting" line was mounted.
    In 2003-2005, all BZHRK complexes were removed from combat duty. The plant in Pavlograd (Ukraine) now makes trolleybuses instead of missiles. And Ukraine, having become a non-nuclear power, under the terms of the agreement can neither have, nor produce or service nuclear weapons.

    But still there are hopes for the return of such a miracle of engineering. On September 5, 2009, the deputy commander of the Strategic Missile Forces, Lieutenant General Vladimir Gagarin, said that the Strategic Missile Forces did not exclude the possibility of resuming military railway missile systems

    ps Today, one of the BZHRK (without missiles) is at the “last shelter” in the exposition of the Central Museum of Oktyabrskaya Railway. at the Warsaw station in St. Petersburg.

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