Mounting. As necessary and not necessary

    During my short professional career I had to deal with various equipment and various networks. And what was sometimes seen, plunged into quiet horror. Installation is often carried out by anyone and anyhow in violation of all possible standards and norms. I am glad that in most cases this is still not the case and the jam-installation does not roll.
    The article will be of interest to installers (although, I think, there are no irresponsible people at Habré, or at least their number is minimal), people who manage this process, accept work, and generally who are not indifferent to the realities of Russian telecom (generally speaking, this applies not only to the telly).
    Under the cut, a voluminous article, a lot of photos of how not to and a little of how.

    I thought for a long time whether such an article is needed on Habré - everyone decides what standards to adhere to, and if he doesn’t decide, then they will decide for him and he will have to redo it. That is, I assume the awareness of customers and performers. But in fact, you yourself see in what state modern networks can be.

    Remembering my promise to try to improve at least something in my environment, I decided to accumulate some tips and examples here.

    Let's start with the bad

    This is how the grounding of the feeder of one of the OpCoSs is done:

    It is possible, of course, that the cable is so attached, just so that it does not hang. But this is not an excuse - the excess must be removed.

    10 meters from this picture:

    In general, chaos and chaos, on the right hangs a coil of trimmed feeder. Similarly: it turned out to be unnecessary: ​​cut and thrown.

    You can’t do this with grounding either:

    Rings on the ground cable are undesirable. The fact is that in this case a primitive electromagnetic coil is obtained. Since I am not an electrician, I will not be able to cover this issue in detail. If there are specialists among the readers, they will supplement the information on this subject. One ground bus bolt is for attaching one ground cable. Often it is necessary to meet situations when several cables are planted on one bolt. It is unclear whether this is done in order to save money or because of the laziness of the contractor, but this should not be allowed. What is the use of such grounding? Even if there is an electrical connection between the two parts now, its preservation cannot be guaranteed in the future: rain, temperature changes, fogs are not good for such compounds.

    Examples of installers lacking a sense of beauty:

    Uncut straps. The work looks vulgar and directly indicates the level of professionalism of the installers. Often there is also a situation where the straps are trimmed sloppy and a sharp edge sticks out at the end, which is very easy to cut about. If possible, all cables should be bent at right angles. They should be laid along the leaderboards (cable ducts, cable routes) or in the box. Just attaching the cable to the wall is not kosher at all. A very common flaw: the lack of heat-shrink rubber in the places of crimping the cable. Nothing critical, but it's bad manners.

    The general style of work in Russia: I did mine, and the rest is not my concern. Such broken walls, cracked plaster often remain after the work. As well as heaps of construction debris, pieces of cables, insulation, damaged terminals, trim strips. The contractor should be forced to clean it after work. This concerns, of course, not only telecommunications

    This is the result of the contractor’s dishonest work

    Low-quality painting of the leader: After a few months, the paint peels off, corrosion appears. Especially in places of welding. Unfortunately, it is difficult to verify this at acceptance. Or the use of a second metal fabrication tool. Such pipe tubes can have thin walls and therefore cannot withstand the load. Often during dismantling, workers go the easy way, such as cutting a feeder and leaving the rest as is. Firstly, it complicates further installation for others, and secondly, out of such small things a general mess is formed in everything.

    Loose nuts

    This is generally a terrible evil. Just imagine that this bolt holds a four hundred kilogram construction. If it falls, then a lot of responsibility will fall on many. Twice in my practice I met with such shortcomings. In this photo, an implicit error, which in the spring can lead to sad consequences. Pay attention to the metal box under the ice - this is also a cable route, it is protected from external influences. Now pay attention to the visor on the building. A falling icicle will easily kill the optics and add a lot of trouble. Unsealed feeder sections. Moisture (rain, condensation) can get inside, and during frost, freezing, damage the core and insulation.

    The first photo shows the result of a poor study of the plan: the roof peak was not taken into account and the original tower platform had to be increased, which could not positively affect the structural strength.

    The second photo is an example of an erroneous calculation of the bearing capacity of a tower. She is currently in disrepair.

    And this is a twisted pair of the largest home provider in our city:

    And this is not the most successful shots. And until recently, this situation was widespread. Twisted pair cables several hundred meters long, unmanaged switches at 5 rubles per bundle, 100 subscribers per 10 megabit channel went to the houses. Fortunately, now they took up the aesthetics of their network, improved those. support.

    The premises of the base station of one operator:

    Attention to the skirtings on the left and cable chaos in the rack.

    You can often see how on switches, in cabinets, on the walls, they arranged a snake wedding. There are plenty of examples.

    Then put an end to the negative examples.

    Now tips

    To many they will seem obvious or strained, but remember for yourself how often you have to deal with their violation. So, as it should be:

    1) Aesthetics. Whatever you say is very important. Of course, you need to do this only if everything else is in order. This also includes cleanliness in the premises. 2) Stock. The golden rule: make 25% of the stock for everything. Do you make SCS, do you pull the power cable, do you order a box and anything else - calculate the required quantity and multiply by 1.25. Even if you have your own company, you do not need to skimp, forget already "the economy should be economical." It's a shame when you need to move the socket, and the twisted pair is already tight (by the way, no cables should go tight) or when you pull the power and there is not enough one and a half centimeter.

    It’s not difficult to leave such a ring, but it will play a good role when moving the pipe or lifting the antenna. Or put a supply of twisted pair in a box. 3) Cables should not just go on the wall, hang, hang out. They should be led along the cable route one to one, fastened with straps (ties). Avoid crossing electrical signal and power cables. At the enterprise where the photographs were taken, repairs are underway: beautiful flat walls made of drywall, armstrong to the ceiling, lamps, fire alarm. And what about the ceiling? That's right, the same thing - why put it in order, if it still will not be visible. 4) All cables, feeders, vending machines must be signed.




    5) For patch panels and crosses, I advise you to have a table that should always be up to date. For SCS, there must be a network diagram. This and the previous paragraph will allow, in which case, quickly and unequivocally restore everything as it was. For example, if you want to move the switch one unit up.

    6) UPD: Do-Fix (at the tip of the comments). Do not leave at the end of the day / week / reporting period making changes to all documents, magazines, for it is forgotten.

    7) On important nodes (server, switch, base stations) you need to do emergency lighting from batteries and regularly check its performance. If possible, you should also connect a computer to the batteries to control equipment in emergency situations.

    8) Technical rooms should at least be equipped with motion and fire sensors. If there are dry contacts on the equipment and the monitoring system, it is better to connect the conclusions of the fire-alarm system (PIC) to it. In our monitoring center, we can see the opening of doors or an accident in temperature. The PIC conclusions are connected to the dry contacts of Huawei's BS.

    9) If you have equipment that requires maintenance, there should be a schedule for periodic maintenance. And it should be adhered to so that it does not work out like this:

    10) If you are a contractor, or accept work from him, if your work is related to installation, take photos of everything. All flaws, imperfections, everything that was done wrong, everything needs to be photographed. Firstly, you can clearly show where the jambs are, or prove that you did everything qualitatively, and secondly, this will help to avoid controversial moments: “This was not. That was all. ” Photos need to be stored so that later they show how to or should not be done. We, for example, always drive our new installers or contractors, and show what we will demand from them.

    11) Before you begin serious work, you must have an action plan, and everything is prepared for a start.

    12) 15 minutes before the end of the working day, you need to start cleaning the room and workplace. Sometimes it’s better not to finish the work today, but have time to put everything in order.

    13) "There is nothing more permanent than temporary." Doing any work do not think that it is for a while - do it right immediately.

    14) Well, in general, treat your work responsibly, and find fault with those who perform this work, because in the end you will later exploit.

    Toward the close of a photo of an almost perfect technical room and installation: Photo of a BS installation in China. I can’t change the situation with roads in our country, with education, bribes, police. But I can do my job qualitatively (since it’s a pleasure) and demand it from others.


    <Article similar to this was published some time ago to me . But since I want the essence of the article to be known to as many people as possible, supplemented and somewhat modified, I publish it here.
    Unfortunately, I understand that the topic will probably cause some discussion, approval, but in fact it is unlikely that something will change: the responsible person will read and agree, the irresponsible one will read and forget>

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