“And instead of the heart - a fiery motor,” or Rhythmalysis and control of the “smart home”

    “You woke up, washed, shaved, squeezed out. He stepped
    on a cat, quarreled
    with his wife, reconciled with his wife, quarreled with the traffic police” (Spleen - “You dream about it”)
    And what you were doing at that time, you don’t dream ...

    The house woke up an hour before your alarm clock rang, let the cat out into the yard, then let it back in, comparing its physiognomy and voice with the sample. He switched the ventilation in the bedroom and kitchen to accelerated air exchange to prepare the atmosphere for a stormy morning activity. He raised the temperature in the bedroom by two degrees, to the daily mark, so that it would easier to crawl out from under the covers. He started the water heater in the bathroom, so that by the time you wash it was enough for you, your wife and even shaving. Added a light lemon scent to the supply air stream. He began a gradual increase in light in the bedroom. I launched a thermopot in the kitchen to heat the water for coffee, and a slow cooker for porridge with fruits. While you selflessly cursing with a cat and wife, he watched the cat's bowl and blinked in vain as a reminder. After the owners left, they filled the reserve bowl with dry food so that the animal would not starve. He turned off the thermostat, water heater and forced ventilation, opening the passive intake valves in the windows. Reduced the temperature in the rooms to acceptable for indoor plants, watered them. I downloaded the next chapter of a fascinating book about smart homes from the network and went deep into reading ...

    All this, of course, is funny and curious, but what kind of rhythm analysis is there in the title?

    Rhythmalysis is such a trend in architectural science. He was invented by the French philosopher and sociologist Henri Lefebvre. It seems that he just really liked to look out the window. And in your free time from this fascinating activity - to walk and look around. And he wrote a book (in fact, not one) in which he taught this to others and told a lot of interesting things about how people's livelihoods affect space. But the pulse of the city is a large-caliber topic, there are some rhythms with a period of tens of years, for a small article it is too long. But it’s quite possible to try to catch and “tame”, that is, use for your own purposes, the rhythms of one house.

    For starters, what are the “smart home” input and output points?

    He receives information through sensors (illumination, temperature, humidity, carbon dioxide level, movement, sound, etc., etc.), he can track the opening and closing of doors and windows, turn on / off electrical appliances and even recognize the image from cameras.

    The house can react to irritants by turning on / off and changing the mode of various devices, opening and closing doors and windows, notifying the owner about some events.

    It is logical that when analyzing and searching for patterns in the incoming flow of information, you can configure a more suitable range of reactions. For example, energy saving has not surprised anyone for a long time.

    What rhythms can affect the life of a single household?

    Firstly, these are diurnal (they are circadian) rhythmsevery inhabitant, including animals. They make up a rather complicated combination (like the addition of oscillations in physics). Of course, he won’t be able to make a full chronogram for himself, how does he know that you scratch your cat’s belly between dinner and tea, but it’s quite capable of marking your regular stay in the same room.

    Weekly rhythms. If the working schedule of one of the households is not 5/2, then they will again form a fancy pattern with repeatability not already weekly, but monthly, or even more. There will be days when everyone is at home, when there is nobody, when someone is alone, and his cyclogram becomes the leading one for the control system.

    Annual rhythms.Change of seasons, change in length of daylight hours, air temperature and so on. They will also affect weekly and daily cycles (approximately like modulating a low-frequency control signal with a high-frequency carrier). For example, in winter, you dress longer, undress, want to sleep earlier, cook other dishes, prefer other types of relaxation, change the ratio of staying at home and outdoors.

    This is all theory, but how can these graphs come in handy in life, what can be calibrated with their help?

    Yes, in general, any “smart home” system can be adjusted using rhythm analysis.

    For example, ventilation.If some doors in the house are closed, they divide it into compartments, between which air exchange is difficult. Even if you do not have a separate weather station in each room, you can calculate the volumes, take into account the inflow and exhaust points and adjust the power of the mechanical air inflow, open the ventilation valves or vents in such a way as to maintain a comfortable atmosphere in each “compartment”. Accordingly, when at home all and all doors are open and when there is one at home and all doors are closed, ventilation will work in very different ways.

    Lighting.About the opportunity to arrange a smooth "dawn" with a bluish lamp for easy waking up was already in the beginning. But providing indoor plants with the optimal length of daylight in any weather and season with a special lamp is another thing, you can optionally set the annual and daily cycles and simulate the length of the day and the amount of light for any latitude. Depending on the season, hour of the day or day of the week, the spectral characteristics of the lighting can also be calibrated. For example, if you work at home during the day, then you should use cold white if necessary at this time, so as not to confuse the body by pulling its clock back and forth. And in the evening - warm white and yellow, which act soothingly.

    And this is a picture from a study on the translation of the biological clock of the human bodyusing lighting of different types . A smart home can do this too, if asked well. For example, if you arrived from vacation with a change of time zone.

    Temperature. It is worth noting here that a person loses heat not only due to contact with air. Contact with objects, radiation, evaporation of moisture make a greater contribution. Due to this, at different times of the year, the same air temperature can be perceived very differently due to the different temperatures of the surrounding surfaces and different clothes on a person. You can calibrate heating and air conditioning in such a way as to take into account these factors and the wishes of the residents in automatic mode, without creating situations when the battery is operating at full capacity under an open window.

    Humidity.It is inextricably linked with ventilation and heating, but in contrast to them, some of its sources are dynamic: these are the tenants moving around the house, constantly exhaling steam, these are sanitary facilities and the kitchen used in a cyclic mode and creating different amounts of steam at a time, these are plants whose gas exchange is subject to a daily rhythm. Accordingly, humidifiers can also be controlled not at random.

    How is the paradigm of a smart home with rhythm analysis different from the usual one, and how to implement it?

    Recall the difference between “building automation” and “smart home”: one simply executes a set of embedded scenarios, the other implements some adaptive algorithms that allow achieving greater savings, safety or comfort during its operation. Rhythm analysis is just one of such adaptive mechanisms in the “smart home”.

    At the input, the module has the “default” control scenarios for controlling the “stuffing” at home, tools for collecting and analyzing various statistics, including the behavior of residents and cases of manual intervention in their work. The output is a constant “finishing” of individual programs according to the selected performance criteria and a variety of combinations in order to minimize cases of manual regulation. For example, if two people live in a house with very different ideas about bioclimatic comfort, you get a combination of subprograms: “only A at home; warm, dark and humid ”,“ at home only B; cold, light and dry ”,“ at home A and B; several compromise options depending on the weather and time of year ”,“ no one; minimum power consumption, maximum security ”and more subtle cases like“ A sleeps, B works;

    The system, obviously, requires a sufficiently long period of usual manual control for training and calibration, because you can’t form an annual cycle in a week, and in the short term it needs to filter out one-time fluctuations from periodic peaks. And this is hardly a budget decision, at this level of technological development. However, the result should be the same symbiotic object that has been repeatedly described in the National Fund, similar to “homo sapiens sapiens” and deserves the name “smart smart home”. The level of non-adaptive “smart homes” with its minuses is also described in the NF, for example, in Bradbury in the short story “There will be gentle rain” .

    In general, if you spend time collecting and analyzing information, you can find a lot of interesting things (or you can not find it: all people are different, and they have different houses, and concepts about comfort). Just do not forget to take into account your own subjective impressions and wishes, in addition to numbers, because the “observer” is an integral instrument of rhythm analysis and the main source of the analytical component itself.

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