(Not only) freshman: high school.Instruction 2.0

    Part 1 >>

    Hello! Our previous post about the adaptation of the first year "Freshman: High School. Instruction 1.0" caused a serious response - a joke to say, 290 comments with a total volume of 153,000 characters (that's about 10 solid habroposts). And in the same place, in the depths of the discussion, it was understood that there would be a “University. Instruction 2.0” release, because firstly, many questions were left aside, secondly, we need a class survey, the results of which will be useful for all of us and not only. We took the time to write the second part: about the students, the army, the first work, the second higher. And again we urge you to share your experiences in the comments - you can read some stories!

    Of course not :-) All sorts of missing.

    A warning. The article was written by an employee of RegionSoft Developer Studio (in order not to click again, we are developing a powerful desktop CRM system for small and medium businesses). The position of the company may or may not coincide with the opinion of the author.

    I will not try to link the article to some kind of dashing-complicated post, we will go through important points that will significantly complement the previous article and will turn out to be, perhaps, even more practically valuable.

    Gaudeamus igitur, juvenes dum sumus!


    In general, the university has several basic steps of research:

    • report - a short presentation on a topic at a conference, seminar, colloquium, etc.
    • abstract - statement of existing positions on the subject of study
    • term paper - an independent study that combines the theoretical base and practical research student
    • Thesis is the same as a term paper, only with elements of in-depth research, scientific novelty and generalization of the results obtained.
    • dissertation - a scientific work aimed at obtaining new scientific knowledge and practical application of solutions, programs, models, and so on.

    (No, well, we know that this is not always the case, but technicians are still stricter than the humanitarian part of the population).

    Reports and essays should not teach anyone to write - we all know how to tyrit and compile, but to spend time on these formal things and write they are rarely of high quality, teachers have rather low requirements. The advice is simple: check the sources with fellow students and make a good rewriting of materials, then you will stand out against the background of those who like “download essay for 250 rubles”.

    But a term paper is, in theory, a completely independent, whole study. In addition, it is an admission to the exam, and the grade for the majority of graduates goes to the diploma along with the grades in the subjects. (That is, all the fives in the record and one stray trojan for a curse - and you do not have a red diploma with a 90% probability (in some universities you can retake). Not that you need it, but it's a shame.)

    All the secrets of the design and structure of the work are stored in GOST 7.32-2001 with the changes. And here is an important nuance that needs to be clarified right away: some teachers do not attach importance to the design of the work, and some are ready to put the score higher for one design, which is partly true, especially for engineers and programmers who will have to draw up a lot of technical documentation throughout their working experience. . GOST, of course, we will not retell, dwell on the most important points.


    There is such a very important life hack, which especially concerns programmers and engineers. If you think carefully about the topic of the first term paper, you can make your life easier until the very diploma, and even before the dissertation. Choose a project that will become the basis of your coursework - for example, your decision or some open source project and start developing a thought. You can test all your term papers on it: the theory will relate to the desired subject, and the practice will be based on the already existing code. There are several advantages: firstly, you will not have to feverishly write the practical part from scratch, secondly, the project will grow along with your student research, thirdly, you will graduate with a ready-made solution. Well, yes, such a serious approach is always pretty teachers, who will guide your research. Finally, you can write about the project on Habré, Medium, etc., get valuable advice and even contributors. Like a cherry on a cake is an attitude of employers, many of them love it when there is a reference to a sensible GitHub in a resume, which means it is possible to see an employee as a “face”.

    The subject of each course work must correspond to the subject, specialty and specialization, and at the same time be as specific and precise as possible. “Automation of an industrial enterprise” is no good, but “Development of an algorithm to control the bottling line for milk-containing products” is quite.


    The whole structure is described in GOST, but it is worthwhile to dwell on two points, from which many students go crazy, and the teachers do not relieve the condition, but repeat the terms as we do to foreigners - the same thing, but louder. Well, suddenly come to? Guess what it is about?

    Subject and object of study

    - a broader concept. This is part of scientific knowledge, which has many aspects of learning. For example, the object of study is “production automation”.

    Thing- This is a property of the object, a separate issue that you study for the purposes of your course work. That is, this is what you are aiming all your actions at. “Automation of business processes in production” is already a subject, you are not looking at all automation, but specifically the narrow part - business processes. The subject specifies the object.

    In the introduction to the term paper, the object is described in several sentences, and the subject is described in several paragraphs.

    Goals and objectives of the study

    - This is the result to which you aspire in the study. Objective: “to create an algorithm for automating business processes that will reduce the duration of routine operations by 25%”. But the goal is not always so specific, it may be broader: to define, identify patterns, etc. As a rule, in the description of the goal there are verbs of the type “substantiate”, “introduce”, “develop”, etc.

    Objectives - is the choice of tools, techniques and tools to achieve the goal. In fact, this is your plan, the steps you take in order to achieve the goal. For example, for “create an algorithm for automating business processes that will reduce the duration of a routine operation by 25%,” you can designate the following tasks:

    • study the business processes of LLC "Development"
    • document automation requirements
    • build an empirical model of the algorithm
    • develop an algorithm for C ++
    • implement the algorithm in LLC "Development" and conduct tests.

    Goals can have sub-goals, tasks - subtasks. But at the level of term papers you should not go into such nesting.

    Practical part

    The most difficult to extract material is to either go to the enterprises, or search for something in the libraries, or write your project. From the height of several formations, I responsibly declare: the third option is the best (see section “Theme”). By the way, a small but valuable piece of advice: unite with a fellow groupmate in spirit and brain and do a personal project together. It will be easier for everyone, and the decision itself will be more interesting and deeper.

    True story.For the regular coursework on finance in the field of agriculture, within the framework of the practice, I went to the local Ministry of Agriculture and asked for the data, holding out a USB flash drive. It was 2005. In general, at first there were endless approvals, whether to trust me with information about livestock and rapeseed, then it turned out that the USB ports were closed and there was no time for the department head. After four hours of throwing, I was thrust into a statistical compilation and played out with the world. It was impossible to write on these data - the practical part of the coursework was a pure emulation on open data from the Internet. But the guy from the next group wrote a course book on banks and there he wasn’t exactly the one with a flash drive in control, but they didn’t let him on the threshold. So he went around all the banks of the city, collected leaflets with descriptions of loans and deposits and wrote a brilliant work.

    In general, it is better to depend only on oneself, and not on companies capable of giving a chance to write a good practical part - this is available to programmers today.

    Details of the design

    Again, all the requirements for registration are in GOST and will be outlined by the teacher. However, there are some tips:

    • use charts - this is the best that can be found in any research work on any discipline (from philology to bathyscaph design), let the charts be both in the text and in applications
    • use the tables - the information in them is clear and pleasant to read
    • structure the text with paragraphs, lists, frames, use of subtitles, etc. (but do not overdo it).

    Purchase course to order

    Here, as they say, in my own skin ... I myself wrote coursework to order (after two quit — my perfectionism was not worth those 800 rubles), I saw how they write “pro” to order (it was either the craftsmen quickly compile information, or university staff and suz, having access to deposits of students in the departments). And in all cases it is disgusting.

    True story.There was a nuisance - a group mate grabbed meningitis and got sick for almost the entire semester, being unable to learn anything. There was a 2 course and basically there were all sorts of "-logs", it was possible to chise it and not go to the academy. Good girl and an excellent student, she coped with everything except the course paper on the economy of an enterprise with a huge settlement part, which we sawed for the entire semester. She ordered coursework from a friend of the university employee. He pulled to the limit and gave the work a day, and even an hour of surrender, however, the term student looked decent. A week later, the teacher on defense discovered the secret of secrets: it turned out that the theoretical part was on the topic, and the practice, calculations and explanatory notes came from another job. The lecturer asked: “Kozhin? And how much did he take? ”“ Seven thousand. ” "Here is the brute." Everything cost the answer to the theory, the four and loud suggestion.

    In short, folks, you don’t order course papers and essays — it’s not a lot of time to write them. Plus, it is always an extension of knowledge and experience. Yes, in 18-20 years it seems that all this is not useful, that it is easier to earn (or take from parents) money than to sit and puff. It will be useful, and not all the features of well written coursework are read in competent technical tasks, the best reports at conferences, in product presentations and, of course, in software documentation. And this is very serious.


    This comment led us to the block about the army. He looks very good and even motivated us to the second post, but, of course, these are all emotions. The facts look boring.

    1. Among all my classmates, acquaintances, etc. two men went to the army as conscripts, as contract soldiers - two more in all the years of study. The conscripts quietly returned and settled one in the bank, the other as a sysadmin, as they wanted during their studies. In the army, one worked as an accountant, the second - again as an administrator, as close as possible to specialties. The grass, of course, was not painted, because there are enough tasks for people with education there. In addition, objectively, well, a lot of reasons to get rid of the health service - gastritis, duodenitis and minus four in both eyes of every other. Bad, of course, but true.
    2. To lose qualifications for the year ... And she was, since it can be lost? We learn from the survey - we did it.
    3. As for the battle of employers for graduates of technical specialties are not taken. First of all, what about the rest? We don’t feel sorry for them or we don’t need other pros? Secondly, we all work in the legal field and we know that such actions under the current legislation are impossible - companies can’t change the Federal Law (otherwise we would have made income tax 0.01% and, for example, abolished fines for violations Traffic - well, not serious!). So with all the beauty of the idea of ​​the author, it is utopian.
    4. However, there are several types of companies in which work gives the right to postponement: customs, some state authorities, fire service, criminal investigation services, some divisions of defense enterprises.

    Now about the relationship of the student and the army within the existing legal framework.

    The law governing our relationship with the army can always be read .

    The army, of course, is the engine of higher education in Russia - often the desire to “not serve” is the only reason for a young person to enter a university. They can be understood: in addition to what we will not discuss at Habré, there is one more factor - in a year of knowledge from the head completely disappear, the motivation to learn will disappear and as a result a person will hardly wade through the career ladder (or it will not be as such) .

    How do universities protect against the army?

    If you are studying under the bachelor + master system, you must enter the master's program in the year when the bachelor’s degree ends (that is, without a break), otherwise there is no delay.

    Additional postponement is given during postgraduate study after graduation.

    There may be a department at the university, after which the graduate may no longer serve as an officer, sergeant, sailor, foreman, etc. stock. In some cases, it requires the passage of military training from 3 to 6 months.

    What is a military department?

    According to Article 22 of the Federal Law No. 53-FZ, those who have the status of a reserve service (regardless of the military rank) are excluded from the call for urgent service. And graduates of military departments are just the officers / privates of the reserve. However, this category of citizens is not rid of the army forever: they can be called up for short-term military training or mobilized in the event of hostilities and emergencies (pah-pah-pah).

    In principle, all healthy, eligible students for military service are admitted to the military department, but sometimes there is an additional requirement - a good and excellent study. By the way, in some universities there are entire military faculties, where the student receives a narrow military specialty related to the specialty chosen for admission. And the competition is high there.

    Some students after the university consciously go to serve under the contract - in other words, they go to work in the military sphere in their civil specialties: doctor, biologist, engineer, programmer, economist, etc. By the way, reviews of such work are neutral and positive: the guys there find their material interest on the one hand and a good circle of colleagues on the other. Salaries, again, are different, but in general they are definitely below the citizen - they have their own buns.

    Alas, there are too few universities with a military department.

    How does an employer treat army service?

    This issue was actively discussed in the comments to our previous post. We at RegionSoft Developer Studio are ok. If a person after university has served a year and came to get a job, he will be interviewed on a common basis and his skills and experience will be decided. It is even thought that such applicants are more disciplined. But this is so, the program statement, we did not check - many of those whom we hired, mowed were trained in graduate school. Let's see what about this we will answer in the survey .

    By the way, often after high school, the guys go to the army by conscription or go to the army under a contract and, having education, they actually work in their specialty: they design, draw, admin, code. Another thing is that, probably, there is not the most comfortable and demanded technology stack (in the civil sense of this phrase), but again - we do not undertake to assert. If someone from habrovchan has such experience, please share in the comments.

    First job search

    If a student wants to enter IT normally, then besides the GitHub repository, it’s better to have work experience as well. And here the future IT specialists win again: if the bank is unlikely to take a business loan department worker from 3-5 courses, then IT companies practice this.

    1. If a student is able to set priorities and manage not to be expelled and work at the same time, he can safely work almost full time and shift the working day on a flexible schedule.
    2. In some companies there is an internship for senior students - paid part-time work with interesting tasks. A great way to get into a large company.
    3. The companies have official and unofficial internship programs, when a student works part time according to an agreed schedule, brings some benefit to the company, learns, and at the end of the internship a decision is made on further work.
    4. In large federal and regional companies, there are schools, courses, corporate universities in which you can take paid and free participation, soak up the quintessence of practical knowledge and get an invitation for an interview, and sometimes immediately to work.

    If such methods of employment are officially defined on the company's website, then the procedure for passing is standard and described there. Another thing, if the internship or the possibility of working students is not indicated. Then you should write a good, honest cover letter, attach your valuable links, resumes, portfolios and send the entire kit to companies that you find interesting or suitable for a stack of technologies.

    Do not chase after large corporations - you will still have time, with experience and certain communication skills, it’s not so difficult to get into them. Try yourself in small companies that develop their independent projects. Why small companies are better, we told before.

    For example, we develop business software and develop our own CRM system - RegionSoft CRM. We had different cases: programmers came to students (even non-technical universities!), Worked, studied and stayed for 5-10 years or more. If anyone had to leave for some reason, we were not ashamed to give our employees. Now we are also ready to take a couple of smart guys in Nizhny Novgorod, if that is the information at the end of the post.

    What should be done at the first job, regardless of its form?

    • Ask a mentor (if he is not explicitly provided) or ask who you can ask working questions for. It happens that asking a practitioner and finding out the answer in a minute is much more productive than spending time on an independent analysis of the problem. Companies know this too, and there will always be a formal or informal mentor.
    • Write all the important findings and practical phishka in the notebook. Yes, yes, exactly as in a lecture. Firstly, you will not forget what surprised you or seemed useful in your work, secondly, the records will remain with you and will help you in your studies; thirdly, you can mark your spaces there and fill them by asking the university teacher or digging in the sources themselves.
    • Trying to understand how the company works as a whole, to realize its place in it (in perspective), to get acquainted with the corporate culture. This will be of great help in further interviews.
    • Learn to do work quickly, and not perfect. Perfectionism is not the best helper in daily activities.
    • Learn how the development and testing is arranged, how the front end and backend relate in practice, how the system administrator is involved in the process, what is the code style.

    If something does not add up or you feel that you do not pull such a regime together with your studies, do not be afraid to give up work, change it, or return to the question a little later. Now it rarely happens that one job is forever: in a recent survey among Habr's readers, 45.5% of respondents changed jobs 3-5 times, 14.7% - 6-8 times.

    The second higher in parallel with the first

    Some universities provide an opportunity to get a second higher education in parallel with the first - in the correspondence or evening form. And it's good, because a) cheaper (and if you are an excellent student and an activist, you can ask for financial assistance from the university to pay for this training), b) in the same university, c) you are in the usual learning rhythm. As a rule, this is a fairly lightweight program development, with installation sessions. Sometimes you can get a good bunch. For example, you study as a programmer and decide to get a second higher education. Programmer + economist or manager = project manager, and then CTO or CIO, programmer + lawyer = sometimes security technician, programmer + translator = progressive programmer, programmer + psychologist = HR in IT.Actually, things are wonderful in the IT market and higher education is not superfluous. Even the second and not very much.

    Separately, it is necessary to say about the English language. Even if you work in 100% of the Russian company, without it in IT anywhere (if you are not 1C-nickname). A lot of valuable and high-quality materials on languages ​​and programming technologies, on physics, space, medicine, biology and other branches are written and exist only in English. A lot of technical documentation on it again. In general, you do not need to write sonnets, but the household and technical ones are not below the intermediate, but rather the upper-intermediate.

    In some universities, English comes as a second higher education with the qualification “Translator”. In most of them, teaching is weak. However, this does not mean that you should ignore such training - be sure to go: for relatively little money, you will firmly master the grammar (they know how to pull it), understand the vocabulary and monologues, meet the first speakers, learn the translation practice. And then later on this yeast you can pass the school of English, tutors, internships abroad and so on. At such a university base, a deep study of the language falls just gorgeous.

    Another article about how to become a programmer.

    Different questions that concern students

    What specialization to choose on the 3rd course?

    In principle, universities ensure that specializations are updated in accordance with the demands of the market, so there are almost no “disgusting” options. Further the choice depends on your score, reference points in your career, etc. For example, I advise my current friends of students to advise telecommunications (they will always be in one form or another), information security (a lot of work, few specialists), information automated control systems (they will also live in the enterprise for quite a long time). And of course, pay attention to high-tech options, if they exist: for example, you can meet neurotechnology in the specialty Software Engineering. In general, it strongly depends on the proposal of the university and your personal aspirations.

    What programming language to learn?

    It all depends on what projects you are targeting, what you like, how you were given OOP (object-oriented) or functional programming at the university. If everything is more or less smooth, look at the ratings of languages and choose what you like. Although trends are changing and new technologies are constantly emerging.

    The only thing that we do not advise you is to choose a very obsolete language (conventionally, COBOL) - well, you never know, you want to be unique in its own way; and choose supernovae - there were cases that they did not receive wide distribution (offhand, for example, Google Dart). For the base and understanding of programming, C and C ++ are good - do not be afraid of them, they give a deep understanding of both programming as a whole and the interaction of code and computer.

    Mobile or enterprise development?

    Most likely, you will try everything and choose your option. Be sure to try it - it's interesting. In terms of the wages of programmers, nothing definite can be said either: everywhere they pay higher for the stack that is more valuable.

    Do I need to understand the related areas, for example, system administration?

    Again, this is highly dependent on career guidance. However, today everything is going to integrate development, system administration, network administration, design, etc. The same DevOps is no longer just a trend, but a given, DevSecOps is now coming to the fore, and this is an even broader profile of specialists. You can choose your direction from the university and develop in it, participate in conferences, meetings, projects and get a good job as a result.

    But it is in depth, and so you need to understand everything - do you imagine a doctor who knows how to treat the heart and does not know the rest of the anatomy? Nonsense. In technical systems and mechanisms the same story.

    Do mathematics need a programmer?

    Always astonishes this question. Our answer is yes. It is generally needed by all, as it develops logical thinking, teaches how to structure, generalize, find connections, etc. In-depth knowledge of mathematics will be needed by all developers who want to deal with game development, neural networks, artificial intelligence, VR and AR, engineering, etc.

    Diploma - is it scary?

    If you have written coursework from year to year, understood the structure of research work, you have a practice base or a good personal project, a diploma is just the final point in training. Large course with beautiful protection. One advice: if your supervisor disappears or is encrypted, do not rejoice and do not hesitate, and run to the department and ask for a new one. Otherwise, you will come to the defense by default on the head worse than fellow students.

    Here is an upgrade from our article. And again there is the idea that some issues are not covered, for example, graduate school and scientific work. Perhaps we will address these topics when discussing the results of the survey.

    We compiled a pollon some of the blocks covered in both publications. We did not have enough Habr tools for it - I want to see some slices, so we chose Google Forms. Please answer anonymous questions, and then we will share the results with everyone. Give us create a decent sample!

    There is work in Nizhny Novgorod

    for salespeople, web developers and programmers Delphi
    We are very, very hastily looking for a sales person , slowly - a web developer and programmer Delphi to an office in Nizhny Novgorod (without a remote, you can beginners, but with little experience and understanding). No HRs, psychological tests and vacancies with stories about a friendly, dynamic company - write to surikov@regionsoft.ru , call +7 (831) 233-13-03 and sign up for an interview. We are cool, fun and intelligent.  

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