Terms, jargon, Android definitions

Original author: Diablo67
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Very often, when dealing with an unfamiliar software product or operating system, we feel difficulties in understanding the meaning of the terms. Sometimes we meet them for the first time and this makes us search the Internet for descriptions and articles. Worse, if the spelling of the term coincides with what we knew before, but the meaning is different. This is especially aggravated when reading articles in a foreign language. Therefore, I present to your attention a translation of the terms taken from Android Terms, Slang, Definitions & Guides .
The original text consists of seven parts, which, in addition to terms, includes descriptions and instructions on how to perform some common actions with a smartphone. This is the first part where the most common terms are collected. This set of terms is very convenient to use before the first lesson on programming for Android, as a handout, so that students, having familiarized themselves, can understand what they are talking about if they suddenly slip a slang word in a question or answer. Basically, the terms are intended for beginners and are related to the configuration of the operating system. Both the definitions themselves and the translation do not claim to be uniquely unique, correct, accurate and rigorous. Any suggestions and corrections are accepted with joy and gratitude.

Author Note

I assume that the creation of this branch will help both beginners and experienced forum users to understand Android jargon, in addition there are several terms whose meanings I do not know when creating this post. I have compiled most of the terms, definitions and slang words that I could dig up. If I missed something, let me know and add them to the branch or change it in accordance with how new terms, definitions and slang words will be presented.
Android terms, jargon and definitions

Apps2SD : A method for saving applications and cache data to a device’s microSD card.

ADB : the interface for debugging android (literally: the Android debugging bridge) is a multifunctional command line utility that allows you to communicate with an emulator instance or a connected device with Android OS. This is a client-server utility that includes three components:
  1. A client that is running on the developer's computer. You can start the client from the console using the adb command. Other Android utilities such as ADT-plugin and DDMS also create adb clients
  2. A server that is running as a background execution process on a developer's computer. The server maintains communications between the client and the adb daemon running on the emulator or device.
  3. A daemon that runs as a background execution process on each instance of an emulator or device.

Android : Linux-based operating system for mobile devices such as the HTC EVO. Alphabetically (English) versions are encoded by the names of the confectionery: Donut, Eclair, Froyo, Gingerbread, Honeycomb, Ice Cream Sandwich, Jelly Bean.

AMOLED : Active Matrix with Organic LEDs. Usually this is a very bright display with good color reproduction, which is on some smartphones.

APK: Android application package file. Each Android application is compiled and packaged into a single file that includes the entire bytecode of the application (.dex files), resources, attachments, and the manifest file. An application package can have any name but must use the .apk extension. For example: myExampleAppname.apk. For convenience, the application package file is often referred to as .apk.

Alpha: The alpha stage of the release life cycle is the first phase of the start of testing (alpha is the first letter of the Greek alphabet used as number 1). During this phase, developers typically test software using the White Box technique. Additional confirmation is obtained later, by other testers using the Black Box and Gray Box techniques. Promoting Black Box testing within an organization is called an alpha release.
Alpha version of the bp may be unstable and cause crashes or data loss. The exception is when alpha is available publicly (as a pre-ordered bonus), in which developers are normally brought to stability so that their testers can test qualitatively. The external availability of alpha applications is not common in proprietary bp However, the po open source, in particular, often has publicly available alpha versions, often distributed as source code by.
The alpha phase usually ends with a “freeze” functionality, meaning that additional functions cannot be added. In this case, they say that the application is functionally full.

Boot animation: A term (boot animation) that indicates a graphical display of the boot process of an operating system. Boot animation can be a simple visualization of running boot messages in the console, but it can also be a graphic or a combination of text and graphics. Unlike the welcome screen, the boot screen or boot animation is not necessarily developed for marketing purposes, but can improve the user experience or provide the user with messages (with color coding) to diagnose the state of the Bootloader system

: The purpose of this program is just to load other data or programs that will later be executed from RAM. Multilevel loaders are often used, during the execution of which several programs are launched in turn, one after another, increasing complexity.

Bootloop : Describes the state when your system reboots time after time without logging into the main operating system.

Beta: This is the development stage of the PO following alpha. It usually begins when the po functionally completed. Usually bp at the beta stage, it has much more errors than the completed bp, as well as it loses in speed / performance. Beta testing focuses on reducing user interactions, often including usability testing. The process of delivering a beta version to users is called a beta release, and this is usually the first time that it’s become accessible outside the organization that developed it. Beta users are called beta testers. They are usually customers or potential customers of the organization that developed the bp who wanted to test the bp free, often getting the completed version for free or at a reduced price. Beta version of the PO often useful for demonstrations within the organization and potential customers. Some developers turn at this stage to preview, prototyping, technical preview or early access. Some po is constantly in beta - when new features are continuously added to the bp without installing a final release by the company.

CPU : It stands for (Central Processing Unit) and processes all the complex mathematical formulas needed for everyday things like browsing the Internet.

Custom : Independent developers who like to tune devices deeper than standard settings publish the fruits of their research to share with others in the form of custom ROMs.

Cache: A component that transparently stores data so that it is processed faster during future calls. The data that is stored in the cache must be values ​​that were previously calculated or duplicates of values ​​stored elsewhere. If the required data is contained in the cache (hit the cache), this request can be served by simply reading the cache, which is relatively faster. Otherwise (past the cache), the data must be calculated again or requested from the original source, which is comparatively slower. Therefore, the more requests will be processed from the cache, the faster the overall system performance will be.

CDMA: a mobile communication standard called cdmaOne, CDMA2000 (3G evolution of cdmaOne) and WCDMA (3G standard using GSM communication), which is often referred to as simply CDMA, and using CDMA as a downstream data access channel.

CIQ : stands for Carrier IQ. Part of the preinstalled software that runs with elevated privileges in the background of the default portable device and records everything. Potentially used to steal information.

Dual coreA: A dual-core processor is a CPU that has two separate cores in one housing and with its own cache. it is almost two microprocessors in one. This type of processor is widely distributed among many manufacturers. Another type of multi core processor is also designed. including quad-core, six-core, eight-core and multi-core processors with even more cores.

Dalvik : The virtual machine of the Android.Dalvik platform is the only interpreting virtual machine that executes files of the Dalvik Executable (.dex) format, a format optimized for efficient storage and distribution of memory.

Dalvik cache: A writable cache that contains optimized bytecode for all apk files (applications) on your Android device. Storing information in its own cache makes application loading faster and execution better. (Improves performance? - translator's note )

EXT: (Extended file system) The extended file system, or ext, was implemented in 1992 as the first file system created specifically for the Linux kernel. Its metadata structure was created by Rémy Card, inspired by the traditional Unix File System. This was the first implementation using a virtual file system and it could handle file systems up to 2 gigabytes in size. Ext2, ext3, and ext4 file systems evolved from this. Most of the discussion is centered around ext3 and ext4 in the Android world.
  • ext3 is a journaling file system commonly used by the Linux kernel. Its main advantage over ext2 is journaling, which improves reliability and eliminates the need to check the file system after an “incorrect” shutdown. In general, ext3 is slower than ext4, JFS, ReiserFS and XFS, but has a significant advantage, which allows you to upgrade with ext2 without backup and data recovery. Measurements show that ext3 also uses less CPU resources than ReiserFS and XFS. It is also significantly safer than other Linux file systems due to its relative simplicity and testing. ext3 does not do checksumming when it writes to the log and if the hardware does lazy caching, you have the risk of getting some damage to the file system,
  • ext4 was created as a series of backward compatible extensions to ext3. In January 2010, Google announced that its storage infrastructure would be upgraded from ext2 to ext4. In December 2010, they also announced that they would use ext4 instead of YAFFS on Android. Ext4 advantages including support for large files, extents, current memory allocations and log checksums;

FC / FC's : Abbreviation for “force close,” meaning the application crashed.

Fastboot : A diagnostic protocol used primarily to modify the flash file system in Android smartphones from another computer via a USB connection. This is part of the Android Debug Bridge library.
Using the Fastboot protocol requires the device to be run in boot loader mode or Second Program Loader mode in which only the bulk of the hardware initialization will be performed. After activating the protocol on the device, it will accept any command that came to it via USB from the console. Some of the most used commands include:
  • flash - Overwrites the section in flash memory in a binary manner, which is located on the host computer.
  • erase - erases a section in flash.
  • reboot - Reboots the device to the main operating system or to the system recovery partition.
  • devices - Displays a list of all devices (with a serial number) connected to the computer.

Flashing : non-volatile memory used in smartphones, tablets, etc. Often the same as flash memory in SD and USB flash drives, just optimized for better speed and performance while the operating system is running.

Hotspot : An access point that provides Internet access over a wireless network using a router connected to the Internet provider. Hotspot usually uses Wi-Fi technology. You can connect wifi compatible devices.

HDMI: This is a compact audio / video for transferring encrypted uncompressed digital data. it is a digital alternative to consumer analog standards such as (RF) coaxial cable, video cable, S-Video, SCART, component video, D-Terminal, or VGA (also called D-sub or DE-15F). HDMI connects digital audio / video sources (such as as net-top, DVD players, HD DVD players, Blu-ray Disc players, AVCHD encoders, PCs, game consoles (such as PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360), AV receivers, tablets and mobile phones) to compatible digital audio devices, monitors, projectors and digital TVs.

Hboot: Mainly responsible for checking and initializing the hardware and starting up the phone bp It can also be used to record official PO releases, as well as some other things. HBoot can be compared to the BIOS on a computer.

HAVS : a control system that dynamically adjusts voltage based on CPU utilization. This is proven to reduce battery consumption, but it also has the opposite effect when multiple control systems interact (e.g. setCPU).

JIT : The Just-in-Time Compiler. Appeared from Android 2.2, this is a method of significantly accelerating applications in Android on the software side.

Kang : Some write code, some modify the code to make their release, it is considered as a kang release.

Kernel: Kernel is a software layer that allows the operating system and applications to interact with your phone hardware. The extent to which you can interact with the functionality of the hardware depends on the quality of the kernel code. The homebrew (rutting) community for HTC has made several improvements to the kernel code, which provide additional features over the stock kernel. When you write an alternative firmware, you automatically get the kernel. But you can also write separately the firmware for the kernel on top of the existing one, effectively rewriting it. To date, the difference in functionality between alternative kernels is less pronounced, and more related to alternative settings. choose a kernel, as a rule, one that works better with your firmware.

Launcher: Summarizing, this is part of the Android user interface on the home screen, which allows you to launch applications, make phone calls, etc. It is built into Android, or can be obtained on the Android Market.

LCD Density : Pixel Density (Resolution) is a measurement of screen resolution in different contexts, usually computer displays, scanners, digital cameras.
First of all, you need to understand that the Android user interface uses something called a “display-independent pixel” or “dip” (yes, this name is confusing because the density settings are in “dots per inch” (dots per inch) or “ dpi ", which is considered the same as" ppi "or" pixels per inch "(pixels per inch).
Typically, the LCD Density setting on Android is 160 dpi. Thus, the OS believes that 1 dip is equivalent to the size of one physical pixel at a resolution of 160 dpi (1 dip @ 160 dpi = 1 screen pixel), this is not necessary, but you need to start somewhere. In my opinion, it would be much better if they chose 100dpi, because it would be much easier with percentages, but they did not choose, because we rack our brains with this formula. (in fact, the formula for the size of one pixel is: px = dpi / 160, for example, for 240 dpi we get px = 1.5, i.e. the size of one dip = 1.5 physical pixels - a comment by the translator )

Mod : Modification of the part of the hardware or software, or anything else in this sense, to provide additional features not planned by the developer.

Nilfs: (New Implementation of a Log-structured File System) This is a log-structured file system for Linux. It was developed by Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation (NTT) CyberSpace Laboratories. It uses the copying technique - when recording “nothing in life is free”, NILFS records all data in an ongoing, log-like format that is only added, never overwritten, this device is designed to reduce the number of movements, and minimize such types of data loss, that occur after a regular file system crash. For example, data loss on the ext3 file system, when the system fails to write operations. When the system reboots, the log records that the recording is not finished, and any partially recorded data is lost.
Normally, Android kernels do not have NILFS support, but there are mods that make it available.

Nandroid : Nandroid is used for backup and recovery. You can choose regular backup (phone only), or backup + sd-ext (phone + Apps2sd). Both will make a backup of your system, the second option will also make a copy of your applications on the SD card.

Nightly: The assembly that takes place at the end of each day of development. If you are using a permanently-integrated server, it can be configured to collect code and run unit testing at each checkpoint. At the end of each day, you can run more intensive tests, regression tests, and integration tests, for example, that take too long to run at each control point, and will run after nightly builds. If you have a consistent development system, nightly builds can also be used to pass code for testing to users.

Opengl es: Android provides OpenGL ES libraries that can be used for fast and complex 3D images. They are harder to use than a Canvas object, but better for 3D objects. The android.opengl and javax.microedition.khronos.opengles packages provide OpenGL ES functionality.

Open & Closed Beta : Developers release either open or closed beta; closed beta versions are released to a select group of people for user testing by invitation only, while open beta versions are released accessible to the general public and all interested. Testers report any error they find, and sometimes offer additional features that they would like to see available in the final version.

Overclock : Increase the performance of your CPU.

Partition: The internal memory of the phone (not an SD card) is a permanent (flash) memory, NAND. It can be partitioned like a regular hard drive. The bootloader is on its own section, Recovery is separate, radio, system, cache, etc. - these are all sections.
Standard sections on an Android phone:
  • / misc - I don’t quite understand what it is for.
  • / boot - bootloader kernel
  • / recovery - contains a recovery program (or clockworkmod or RA recovery for rooted Evo)
  • / system - here is the operating system: Android, Sense, boot animation, Sprint crapware, busybox, etc.
  • / cache - cached data for the operating system
  • / data - user applications, data, settings, etc.
The sections described below are not specifically designed for Android. They are associated with the hardware of the phone, the kernel must have a code to interact with the specified hardware.
  • / radio - radio flashing of the phone, controls mobile communications, GPS, data, bluetooth.
  • / wimax - firmware for Sprint's flavor of 4G, WiMax.

PRL : Preferred Roaming List, usually a way to tell your phone which towers to connect to in the first place.

RUU : holistic bp package manufactured by HTC, it can contain a lot of the things they are trying to update. Radio, ROM, bootloader, etc ... Installing ruu is like writing an image to your hard drive - it erases the data and installs the image. This will destroy all your data if the installation is completed.

Recovery: The recovery partition is the boot mode for the phone, which allows you to delete settings from the data section on the phone (hard delete), or update using the update.zip file in the root of the microSD card. It is a common thing (also not mandatory) to overwrite and patch the Recovery image, such as TWRP or ClockworkMod Recovery. This allows you to run Nandroid backup from the device, and flash modification, such as files from the device, usually meaning installing software on the device. Recovery mode is separate from the “normal” mode, and can be activated by pressing the home switch, including the telephone.

Rom / Firmware: Read-Only Memory, and in the language of technology, it refers to the internal storage of the device, which is designed to store instructions of the operating system, which should not be modified during normal operation of the device.

Radios : From the point of view of HTC, radios consists of:
  • WiFi that works at 2.4-5ghz channel dependent frequency
  • Cellular / 3G, which transmits voice and data
  • 4G / WiMAX that only transfers data
  • GPS that only accepts
  • Bluetooth that communicates with WiiMotes and wireless headsets

Flashing a radio ( just like in the original - translator's note) means changing the code that controls the way the phone receives and sends signals.

Ram : (Random Access Memory, direct translation) A group of memory chips, usually of type dynamic RAM (DRAM), that function as the main working field of a computer. When a PC first entered the market in the second half of the 1970s, 64KB (64 kilobytes) of memory was the maximum threshold. Today, 64MB (64 megabytes) SDRAM is the entry-level desktop desktop solution, a thousand times larger.
“Random” in RAM means that the contents of each byte in the storage can be directly obtained without reading the byte before or after it. This is also true for other types of memory including ROM and PROM. However, unlike ROM and PROM, RAM requires power to service its contents, which is why you must save data to disk before turning off the computer. To learn about RAM chips and how to upgrade your memory, look for a memory module. To learn what kind of memory is used to process data, look for computer or memory. Also see dynamic RAM and static RAM.

Root : Root Directory (First Level Folder)

Rooting: The process of providing users with mobile phones, tablets, and other devices running Android OS privileges of control (known as root access) to Android's subsystems. Routing is often provided in order to circumvent the restrictions that are set by hardware developers on some devices, expressed by the ability to change system applications and settings, run specialized applications that require administrator rights, or perform operations that are not otherwise accessible to an ordinary Android user. Routing is an analogue of jailbreaking for devices with the Apple iOS or Sony PlayStation 3 operating system. In Android, rooting can also result in a complete removal of the operating system.

Sbc: (Ability to use the battery over the usual safe limit). The concept is similar to processor overclocking: you exceed a safe level to achieve additional performance. The goal here is to get more from the battery in one charge. The downside is that you can damage the battery or significantly reduce its battery life. Some cores claim to use safe techniques to prevent battery damage. Just keep in mind the potential risk.

Sideloading : This means installing applications bypassing the official Android Market.

Splash screen: Splash screen (welcome screen) is the image that appears while android is loading. Splash screens cover the entire screen or just the rectangle in the center of the screen. Splash screen of the operating system and some applications that expect to start in full screen mode usually cover the entire screen.

Superuser / SU : On many operating systems, the superuser is a special user account used by the system administrator. Depending on the operating system, the name of this account may be: root, administrator or supervisor.
Normal work on such an operating system is carried out using the normal user account, and therefore it does not have the ability to make a change applicable to the entire operating system, viruses or other malicious software. - or simple user errors - will not make it possible to transfer the effect to the entire system. In organizations, administrative privileges are often reserved for individuals.

Script: The Scripting Layer for Android (the abbreviation SL4A, previously called Android Scripting Environment or ASE) is a library that allows you to create and run scripts created in a large number of different languages ​​directly on Android devices. SL4A was created for developers and it’s still alpha quality. These scripts have access to many APIs available to normal Android Java applications, but with a simplified interface. Scripts can be interactively run in the terminal, in the background, or through Locale.

SDK : (SDK or “devkit”) is usually a software developer kit that allows you to create applications for a specific package, framework, game console, operating system or platform.

Stock: This is the operating system in the default form, without any modifications made to it, excluding any device-specific support elements needed for this device.

SOD Sleep of death - a state when the device "falls asleep" and does not wake up.

S-On : Security-on mode, indicates the lack of access to the phone’s operating system.

S-Off : Security has been violated, now we have access to the operating system.

( translator's note: this is some simplification and generalization. HTC phones have an established type of security check, the level of which is determined by S-OFF / S-ON. In fact, this is a flag that is stored in the device, which checks the signature of the image for any firmware before it can be written to the system memory area. This stops the use of any custom firmware, images, restores, etc. and also restricts access to NAND flash memory. However, when the security level is set to S-OFF, the signature verification is skipped, allowing the user to download customized firmware, image, etc., as well as modify the official firmware, this makes it possible to customize HTC Android devices to the maximum)

Tethering: Indicates the distribution of an Internet connection with Internet access of a mobile phone with other devices. This distribution can be provided over a wireless network (Wi-Fi), Bluetooth, or a physical connection using a cable. In the case of tethering via a wireless network, it is possible to mark the device as a mobile hotspot. A telephone with an Internet connection works like a portable router providing tethering services for others.

Userspace (Governor): The scheduler (manager?), An exceptional rarity for the world of mobile devices, allows any program launched by the user to set the operating frequency of the CPU. This scheduler, more common on server or desktop applications as an application (like an application for managing a power profile) requires privileges to set the CPU clock frequency.

Underclock : Reduces CPU speed.

Undervolt : Undervolting means some reduction in the CPU supply voltage, which allows you to extend battery life and lower the temperature during heavy CPU use.

USB: Designated for Universal Serial Bus. This is a method of connecting devices to a computer. Most smartphones now use micro-usb to charge and sync.

Updater Script : When an Android device installs updates through the 'update.zip' files used in update mode, they must carry out a wide range of actions with files and rights. Instead of using a minimalistic command line such as {b, d, c} sh, Android developers decided to create a small functional language that can be expanded by device manufacturers if necessary. Since the release of Android “Donut” (v1.6), the scripting language is called Edify and is usually defined in bootable / recovery / {edify, edifyscripting, updater} folders in the Android source tree.

Wireless n: Wireless N technology increases the speed of wireless Internet connection. Wireless 'N' routers also work with Wireless 'G' and 'B' wireless adapters.

WiiMax : (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is a communication technology for high-speed wireless Internet signal distribution over wide areas.

YAFFS : Yaffs1 is the first version of the file system running on NAND chips that have 512 bytes of page + 16 bytes of reserved (OOB; Out-Of-Band). [Clarification needed] These old chips also had 2 or 3 write cycles per page, with with which YAFFS dealt - the so-called dirty pages were marked by writing to special reserved cells.

Newer NAND flash chips had large pages, 2048 bytes + 64 bytes are reserved, and less write requirements. Each page with a delete block (128 kilobytes) was to be recorded in sequential mode, and each page should be recorded only once. YAFFS2 was designed to support newer chips. YAFFS2 is based on the source code YAFFS1, with serious differences in the internal structure, for which now the assumption of 512 bytes in size did not exist, and the block sequence number was placed on each page being written. Thus, the old pages could be logically rewritten without violating the “record at a time” rule [clarification needed]
YAFFS is a robust, log-structured file system with a high priority for maintaining data integrity. Another goal of YAFFS is high performance. YAFFS is usually ahead of most alternatives. It is also designed for portability and can be used on Linux, WinCE, pSOS, eCos, ThreadX and many narrow-purpose OSs. The 'YAFFS / Direct' option is used in situations where there is no operating system, built-in OS and bootloaders: it has the same core file system, but a simplified interface for interacting with the OS and NAND hardware.

Zipalign: Archiving utility presented for the first time with version 1.6 of the Android SDK. It optimizes paths when creating the APK. This action allows the Android operating system to interact with the application more efficiently, and therefore potentially makes the application and the system as a whole much faster. Runtime for applications that are processed by zipalign is faster, which gives less RAM consumption during application startup.

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