Spherical panoramas of Mars and Curiosity

    Russian photographer Andrei Bodrov creates 360-degree spherical panoramas based on photographs of Curiosity. His skill and complexity of such work is recognized even by NASA. February 22, his panorama became an astronomical picture of the day ( Astronomy Picture of the Day ).

    In this picture, the author combined two panoramas of two cameras MastCam Left and MAHLI. This panorama in February struck even the Americans and went through almost all the "space" sites.
    ( Unfortunately, the integration did not work, so the screenshots are clickable )

    Today's 4-gigapixel panorama is much more complicated, here the author had to combine frames with four cameras: three color MastCam Right, MastCam Left, MAHLI and one black and white NavCam. The shots were taken between 136–149 sols, when there was a Christmas vacation on Earth and Curiosity had time to take panoramas. Curiosity now has 229 sol. I had thoughts to do something similar, but I didn’t undertake it, because it is really very difficult (besides the fact that a powerful technique is needed). But the implementation is great. And the combination of images of three different cameras, with different focal lengths, shooting from three different angles in the Curiosity portrait is generally beyond praise. In both panoramas, most of the sky and the sun are artificial. Curiosity removes the Sun only through a “welding mask”. (

    Attempts to find sun spots in this photo were unsuccessful )

    The author took the color that the cameras captured when shooting the horizon line as the basis for the color of the sky. In reality, the sky should darken to the zenith. The better the weather, the less dust in the atmosphere and the darker the sky.
    Here is a palette from the Viking where it is clearly visible (1742 - a dust storm):

    I foresee the traditional question: “How did he remove himself?”
    The answer is given by NASA for a long time. So:

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