Acoustics. Orthodynamic emitters

    Hello everybody.
    I want to talk a little about non-standard emitters.
    Orthodynamic membranes were invented, like much good, in Japan and have long been used in many models by Yamaha, Audio Technica, etc.
    The structure of such speakers is both simple and complex. In fact, they are two round magnets and a membrane between them, which form a kind of sandwich.

    Wishing to ask for cat.

    The trick of this technology is that they are magnetized in different ways, in different parts of the magnet.
    In concentric circles similar to annual rings of trees, areas of different poles cover the entire magnet, diverging from the center to the edges.
    In the illustration, the south is marked red, so you can roughly imagine how this is located.
    Now let's move on to the membrane. Unlike a dynamic system, this is not a diffuser glued to a magnetic coil, but a thin membrane on which a conductive path is applied with a spiral.

    The tracks were applied either by etching a previously applied layer of metal foil, or by gluing a finished spiral onto a dacron membrane. Lavsan, with a film thickness of 5-8 μM, had an extremely low weight, comparable to the weight of an air-vibrated film.
    When the current was applied, the spiral generated an electromagnetic field, which began to interact with the constant magnetic field of the pancakes of magnets, and, as a result, began to vibrate and generate sound itself.
    The emitter itself looks like this:

    This technology has one main advantage: due to the extremely small mass of the film membrane, the level of distortion is very low and approaches the ideal. This is a Hi-Fi class.
    Orthodynamics was used almost exclusively in headphones, and actually for them it was created as a modification of the earlier technology of isodynamic emitters.
    The principle of operation of both technologies is fully described in the corresponding patent .

    Now I want to argue why I attribute the headphones created on this technology to Hi-Fi.
    - Orthodynamic headphones sound very accurate and true. There is no meaningless bullying of bass and treble, the middle does not sink at all.
    - Due to the low inertia of the membrane, microdynamics are impressive, all the smallest details of sound are very well transmitted.
    - The power of the headphones is very high (to be honest, it is redundant at maximum power, it is very real deaf).

    Like any non-mass technology, there are subtleties.
    Nuance 1. Such headphones, almost certainly require a special headphone amplifier. Without it, they will also sound, but "not so."
    Nuance 2. They require heating. Seriously, if the headphones have not been listening for a month, it will take them 5 hours to reach their ideal sound. With daily listening, 5 minutes of warming up is enough.
    Nuance 3. The quality of the sound source should be very high, the recording quality too.
    Nuance 4.They must be loved.
    Nuance 5. When listening to modern recordings on these headphones, you must understand that now music is recorded in a slightly different way than it was 30 years ago. The music in these headphones will sound completely different.
    Nuance 6. These gurus achieve the best sound for themselves, by selecting the optimal amplifier and changing the damping of the headphones.
    Nuance 7. Most headphones do not have a deep hollowing lower bass. Fans of “brain removal” headphones may not give pleasure. At the same time, there are models that work out the whole range. In general, this is the so-called vintage sound.

    The largest number of models produced in Japan by Yamaha. There was also a wide range of headphones in the USSR.
    The last headphones produced in the CIS were ECHO N-16-40 C made in the city of Smele.

    The latest models I know are made by the Japanese company Fostex .

    Russian-language forum on headphones + its continuation The
    current list of models of headphones with isodynamic and orthodynamic emitters.

    The article was written on the personal initiative of my beloved Echo N-16-40, which I dreamed of and asked not to forget about them.
    Thanks for attention.

    Z.Y. Earlier, I collected a collection of Soviet headphones and sometimes I think about returning to this.

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