Note that unless otherwise noted, we used IGLS estimation.

In this chapter we will be using the following centered variables:GndC_verbisiq_verbcentered around the grand mean;GrpM_verbcontains the group means ofiq_verb;GrpMC_verbcontains the group means ofGndC_verb;GndC_sesissescentered around the grand mean.

The data set used in table 8.2, p. 112 can be downloaded here: table8_2.

From chapter 4 and 5: creating the variables

constant,GndC_verb,GrpMC_verbandgndc_ses.

Creating the constant variable.

Data Manipulation NamesThis opens up a window listing all the variables in the dataset with the number of non-missing observations, missing observation, max and min for each variable. We just need to find out the total number of observations in the dataset but this is a nice window to have open to keep an eye on which variables have been corrected and do they look reasonable.Generate VectorFor the output column choose an unused variable and rename it cons by using ctrl+n which brings up a rename window. Then enter the total number of observations in the data set for number of copies, in this case n=2287. Finally, enter 1 for the value since this will be a constant variable equal to 1. Clickgeneratein order to execute the command

Calculating the grand mean for

iq_verband then creating the variablegndc_verbwhich is centered around the grand mean.

Basic Statistics Averages and CorrelationsChooseiq_verband click oncalculate.

CalculateChoose an unused variable and rename itgndc_verbby using ctrl+n Enter "gndc_verb" = "iq_verb" - 11.834 and click on calculate.

Creating the variable

grpmc_verbwhich contains the group means ofgndc_verb.

Data Manipulation Multilevel Data Manipulationin the input column choosegndc_verb, in the output column choose an unused variable and use ctrl+N to rename itgrpmc_verbthen this will be the output variable ClickAdd to action listwhich will make the input and output choices appear in the action list on the right hand side Click onExecute

Calculating the grand mean for

sesand then creating the variablegndc_seswhich is centered around the grand mean.

Basic Statistics Averages and CorrelationsChoosesesand click oncalculate.

CalculateChoose an unused variable and rename itgndc_sesby using ctrl+n Enter "gndc_ses" = "ses" - 27.812 and click on calculate.

Table 8.1, model 1, p. 111.

Homoscedastic model.

Model EquationsClick onYChoose y:langpost, N levels: 2 - ij, level2(j):schoolnr, and level1(i):pupilnr. Click on thexChoose the variable_{0}variableconstantand select bothschoolnrandpupilnr.Add TermClick on thexChoose_{1}variablegndc_verbas a fixed parameter and as a random slope with variance at the j(schoolnr) levelAdd TermClick on thexChoose_{2}variablegndc_sesas a fixed parameterAdd TermClick on thexChoose_{3}variablesexas a a fixed parameterAdd TermClick on thexChoose_{4}variablegrpmc_verbas a fixed parameter

Click on the

Startbutton located below the file menu and then click onestimatesat the bottom of the equations window to make the estimates appear.

Table 8.1, model 2, p. 111.

Heteroscedastic model.

Model EquationsClick onYChoose y:langpost, N levels: 2 - ij, level2(j):schoolnr, and level1(i):pupilnr. Click on thexChoose the variable_{0}variableconstantand select bothschoolnrandpupilnr.Add TermClick on thexChoose_{1}variablegndc_verbas a fixed parameter and as a random slope with variance at the j(schoolnr) levelAdd TermClick on thexChoose_{2}variablegndc_sesas a fixed parameterAdd TermClick on thexChoose_{3}variablesexas a a fixed parameter and as a variance component at the i(pupilnr) levelAdd TermClick on thexChoose_{4}variablegrpmc_verbas a fixed parameter

Click on the

Startbutton located below the file menu and then click onestimatesat the bottom of the equations window to make the estimates appear.

Table 8.2, model 3, p. 112.

Heteroscedastic models depending oniq_verb.

Model EquationsClick onYChoose y:langpost, N levels: 2 - ij, level2(j):schoolnr, and level1(i):pupilnr. Click on thexChoose the variable_{0}variableconstantand select bothschoolnrandpupilnr.Add TermClick on thexChoose_{1}variablegndc_verbas a fixed parameter, as a random slope with variance at the j(schoolnr) level and as a variance component at the i(pupilnr) levelAdd TermClick on thexChoose_{2}variablegndc_sesas a fixed parameterAdd TermClick on thexChoose_{3}variablesexas a a fixed parameterAdd TermClick on thexChoose_{4}variablegrpmc_verbas a fixed parameter

Click on the

Startbutton located below the file menu and then click onestimatesat the bottom of the equations window to make the estimates appear.

Table 8.2, model 4, p. 112.

Heteroscedastic models depending oniq_verb.

Model EquationsClick onYChoose y:langpost, N levels: 2 - ij, level2(j):schoolnr, and level1(i):pupilnr. Click on thexChoose the variable_{0}variableconstantand select bothschoolnrandpupilnr.Add TermClick on thexChoose_{1}variablegndc_verbas a fixed parameter, as a random slope with variance at the j(schoolnr) level and as a variance component at the i(pupilnr) levelAdd TermClick on thexChoose_{2}variablegiq_plusas a fixed parameterAdd TermClick on thexChoose_{3}variablegiq_minusas a a fixed parameterAdd TermClick on thexChoose_{4}variablegndc_sesas a fixed parameterAdd TermClick on thexChoose_{5}variablesexas a a fixed parameterAdd TermClick on thexChoose_{6}variablegrpmc_verbas a fixed parameter

Startbutton located below the file menu and then click onestimatesat the bottom of the equations window to make the estimates appear.

Tables 8.3, 8.4 and 8.5 were skipped due to lack of data availability.