Complete plan for NASA's new lunar program “Artemis” (Artemis)

    An ambitious lunar project for 10 years, according to which will be completed: 37 launches from the Earth, 5 landings with a crew, creation of the first lunar base.

    The moon is back in fashion and will soon be crowded, for sure in its orbit.

    In the orbit of the moon are now :

    • LRO probe (Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter) from NASA;
    • the Chinese Longjiang 2 microsatellite and the Queqiao repeater satellite in a halo orbit around the Lagrange point L2 of the Earth-Moon system.

    Here's what a scientific satellite constellation looks like in outer space of the solar system:

    China’s plans to study the moon (the Chang'e-4 mission is now operating on the far side of the moon, the Chang'e-1 - Chang'e-3 programs have been completed):

    2020 - mission "Chang'e-5" with a returnable module to the Earth, which will deliver several kilograms of lunar soil for new research and discoveries.

    And then ... The Poles of the Moon will be a new area of ​​research - these are the Chang'e-6 (7-8) missions, some of which are planned to be implemented before 2030.

    And so, in May 2019, NASA launches the Artemis lunar program with the first milestone - landing on the lunar surface in 2024 of its astronauts.

    After all, Artemis is the ancient Greek goddess and sister of Apollo, whose name was the first US lunar program of the 1960s and 70s, during which 12 American astronauts visited the Moon as part of six expeditions, and over 380 kg of lunar soil samples were delivered to Earth.

    Apollo 17 Flight Scheme

    1 - Launch of the Saturn-5 launch vehicle with the Apollo spacecraft.
    2 - Department of SAS (Emergency Rescue System).
    3 - Separation of stage I (rockets S -1C), the inclusion of the engine of stage II.
    4 - Separation of stage II (rockets S-2), the inclusion of the engine of stage III (rockets S-4B), which displays the Apollo spacecraft in low Earth orbit.
    5 - Intermediate near-Earth orbit.
    6 - Conclusion of the Apollo spacecraft on the flight path to the moon (re-starting the engine of stage III).
    7 - Department of the main unit.
    8 - Rebuilding the main unit.
    9 - Docking of the main unit to the lunar cabin.
    10 - Branch of spacecraft Apollo.
    11 - Correction of the flight path of the spacecraft Apollo.
    12 - The second correction of the flight path of the Apollo.
    13 - Stage III (S-4B rocket) is transferred to the trajectory of a direct hit on the lunar surface.
    14 - Last path correction.
    15 - Construction of the lunar orbit. The parameters of the first two orbits: 316.6 km of populations, 94.4 km of resettlements.
    16 - Construction of a lower orbit of the spacecraft "Apollo" with the following parameters: populations 109.2 km, relocation 27.7 km; two astronauts are moving into the lunar cabin.
    17 - Separation of the lunar cabin and the main unit at the twelfth turn.
    18 - Turning on the engines of the lunar cabin to reduce the landing speed.
    19 - The landing of the cabin.
    20 - Circulation in the lunar orbit of the main block of the spacecraft Apollo.
    21 - Construction of the orbit of the main block with the following parameters: settlements 130.2 km, resettlement 100.5 km.
    22 - Start of the take-off stage of the lunar cabin.
    23 - Approaching the take-off stage with the main unit.
    24 - Docking take-off stage with the main unit.
    25 - Branch take-off stage.
    26 - Take-off stage on the way to the surface of the moon.
    27 - Department of the automatic satellite in a selenocentric orbit.
    28 - Transition to the flight path to the Earth.
    29 - Correction of the trajectory.
    30 - The second correction of the trajectory (if necessary).
    31 - Last correction after separation of the crew compartment and the engine compartment.
    32 - The orientation of the crew compartment when returning to Earth.
    33 - The descent vehicle at an altitude of 122 km.
    34 - Signal loss upon entry into the atmosphere.
    35 - Waterlogging.

    The full plan of NASA's new Artemis lunar program:

    First planned lunar five-year plan:

    Second five-year plan:

    This ten-year plan includes the use of both private launch vehicles, spacecraft and modules, and NASA's developments (Space Launch rocket - SLS Block 1B, space rocket Orion spacecraft and the Gateway orbital lunar base) for the phased launch of a large payload and several crews into orbit of the Moon.

    Moreover, both the companies already tested and working in space, as well as new ones that will still reveal their potential, will be involved as contractors.

    For example, NASA has already selected 11 companies to participate in the Artemis program. for research and prototype landing module.
    List of companies
    - Aerojet Rocketdyne - Canoga Park, California
    - Blue Origin - Kent, Washington
    - Boeing - Houston
    - Dynetics - Huntsville, Alabama
    - Lockheed Martin - Littleton, Colorado
    - Masten Space Systems - Mojave, California
    - Northrop Grumman Innovation Systems - Dulles, Virginia
    - OrbitBeyond - Edison, New Jersey
    - Sierra Nevada Corporation, Louisville, Colorado, and Madison, Wisconsin
    - SpaceX - Hawthorne, California
    - SSL - Palo Alto, California

    In May 2019, NASA astronauts completed testing and assessing the viability of a model of a living compartment in a moonlit space created by Northrop Grumman.

    This layout is designed to test ergonomics, functionality and compatibility with basic "daily tasks".

    The module has all the basic elements that a team of four crew members will need: a sleeping compartment, a kitchen, crew training equipment, facilities for scientific experiments, workstations for robotics and life support systems.

    Tests of the layout were conducted by future NASA Lunar Orbital Platform-Gateway program participants and four astronauts: two with experience in Space Shuttle and the ISS flights, as well as two candidates for astronauts who represented the next generation of astronauts.

    In this way, NASA is trying to get feedback from veterans of astronautics, as well as pass on their invaluable experience to a new generation of space explorers.

    Budget of the Artemis program

    The estimated budget of the lunar program Artemis is from 6 to 8 billion dollars per year in excess of the existing NASA budget of about 20 billion dollars.

    The main problem is timely and full funding of the stages of the Artemis program so that the deadlines for the implementation of its stages are not disrupted, and the planned tasks are completed.

    If even half of the plan of the Artemis program is implemented, then in 2024 we will expect the landing of the first Earth researchers in this century in the vicinity of the south pole of the Moon.

    Thus, the exploration of the moon will continue and there will be much more circles on the map below:

    Immediate plans for the Russian lunar program:

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