An anthill or a fortress? Building a house for the price of an apartment. 3 part. Power supply

    Part 1. Construction.
    Part 2. Heating.
    Part 4. Comfort at home and gadgets.

    There was time and energy to continue, at the request of readers, the story of the construction of my house. The previous parts are here and here . This time I will talk about the electrical system at home, about my experience in dealing with the extortion of power engineers, and how I managed to reserve electricity to the house in case of disconnecting external networks for up to 12 hours. As usual, he made a video for those who are lazy to read, and for the rest he prepared a lot of text and pictures.

    Step 1. Connect the electricity

    The construction and living in the house itself is impossible without electricity. After the purchase of the site, contractual relations with the grid company began. Interestingly, some are responsible for the wires, and completely different ones are responsible for the electricity on these wires. Plus the situation is that the application and the contract can now be made through the Internet - it seriously saves time. I applied through the MOESK website when I received the documents on the property right of the site. It would be good to read the law and know your rights and obligations. And the law directly states that if the following conditions are met, the connection to the power grid for an individual will cost 550 rubles.

    • Electrical power is connected, not exceeding 15 kW.
    • The distance to the nearest power line (PTL) of the required voltage should not exceed 500 meters in a rural settlement and 300 meters in a city one.
    • The applicant (that is, you) did not connect at a rate of 550 rubles for 15 kW of objects in the area in the previous three years.
    • Connection is carried out on the "third category of reliability."

    Subject to these conditions, you have the right to connect for 550 rubles. Immediately after the application, receipt of TU (technical conditions), I began to call different people and offer to connect electricity on a turnkey basis for 2 weeks for “small” money: the amount announced ranged from 28 to 32 thousand rubles. This money included a metal column with a length of 6 meters, a box with a gun and a meter, and the connection of a CIP wire with a length of 7 meters to the post. Soberly judging that I can assemble the electrical panel myself in half a day of unhurried work, and it would take no more than a couple of hours to dig in a column, I refused the services offered. As a result, taking into account my free work, the fulfillment of technical conditions on my part resulted in 9 thousand rubles. A couple of cavils from the power grid company decided to talk with the authorities and the label "zipper" on the shield.

    Hence the conclusion: if you are ready to spend your time and have enough knowledge for the independent fulfillment of technical conditions - you can save 20 or more thousand rubles.

    Step 2. Entering electricity into the house

    From the electrical panel, which is located on the street, behind the fence, to the house about 14 meters. I decided to lay the cable under the ground. The small excavator, which at that time worked on the site for the installation of a septic tank, was, for a small fee, used to dig a trench. In this trench was laid sewer pipe with a diameter of 110mm (red), and it laid SIP-cable from the electrical panel to the house. Now the specialists will tell you that the cable cannot be buried, to which I will answer: the pipes are connected tightly, and the inlet and outlet are made in such a way that water will not get into them. The cable itself does not touch the ground. In addition, a rope is laid in this pipe, along which a cable will be drawn to supply the Internet to the house and other signal and low-current wires. That is, from the house to the fence, other necessary wires are also easily pulled.

    Step 3. Electric wiring in the house

    I foresee that now there will be a mass of adherents of his method, but I believe that I did the right thing, paving all the highways on the ceiling, and not on the floor. At least three lines stretch to each room or individual room: on sockets, on lighting and on 12V lighting. I will explain why this is done: since there are small children in the house, they will inevitably sooner or later begin to climb into the sockets. They can be protected from electric shock simply by de-energizing the outlet, but leaving the lighting working: that is, it will be light and safe. In addition, the machine for each room allows the outlets to work in the neighboring rooms, if one of the rooms is de-energized or a short circuit happens. Lighting for 220V is also displayed on a separate machine from each room. If you need to hang a chandelier in one room, it is not necessary to turn off the light in all rooms - it is enough to de-energize only the desired object. Well, the 12V trunk is made for the work of LED strips of filling lighting. Someone will say that you can use power adapters, but there is a serious experience, proven practice. In the technical room is a battery with a 12V power adapter that supports the power of the low-voltage network. With the disappearance of voltage throughout the village, appliances and lighting will stop working, and the house will continue to be illuminated with low-voltage LED strips, which will run on battery power for a very long time. Reservations, however! In the technical room is a battery with a 12V power adapter that supports the power of the low-voltage network. With the disappearance of voltage throughout the village, appliances and lighting will stop working, and the house will continue to be illuminated with low-voltage LED strips, which will run on battery power for a very long time. Reservations, however! In the technical room is a battery with a 12V power adapter that supports the power of the low-voltage network. With the disappearance of voltage throughout the village, appliances and lighting will stop working, and the house will continue to be illuminated with low-voltage LED strips, which will run on battery power for a very long time. Reservations, however!

    But back to the wiring: all wiring done under the ceiling, and in the walls hiding in the grooves made in drywall. For lighting, a cable of VVGNG with a section of 1.5 mm2 is used, and for sockets 2.5 mm2. Wiring in different directions of sockets made in the junction boxes on the ceiling using clamping terminals WAGO. This allows, if necessary, to connect any new point or hang up an additional chandelier, if desired. From repair, you only need to add a new strobe, and then repair and paint over this section of the wall.

    I also want to note that it turned out to be very convenient to use a motion sensor in a long corridor for illumination, instead of walk-through switches. And in the bedrooms, I used walk-through and throw-over light switches at the entrance and near the beds. Before that, I used the usual switch at the entrance and before going to bed I had to get to the bed by touch.

    In addition, earlier I had the sockets slightly above the baseboard, but experience showed that I still had to bend over. So why make extra gestures, especially if all the same, most of the devices are at table level. Therefore, I placed all current sockets and switches at the level of the arm, that is, somewhere at a height of 90 cm from the floor.

    Step 4. Electrical panel

    Electrical panel is the center of energy communication of the whole house. And the quality and logic of the assembly depends on the operation and reliability of all power systems. In addition, I provided power redundancy, but I will discuss this in the next step, and now about the dashboard itself. To begin with, I distributed all the loads in three phases, trying to distribute the load as evenly as possible:

    1. Boiler + sockets and light
    2. Boiler + DHW boiler
    3. Boiler

    Naturally, a mess prevails in our power grids, and in addition to a power outage, quite often in the network itself there are surges and a divergence of the actual voltage from the declared one. Therefore, the most undemanding loads do not have special protection, such as a boiler and a DHW boiler, because the main consumer there is heating elements, for which the voltage drops are not particularly scary. But home appliances I would like to protect. In addition, in the switchboard on the first phase, after the boiler, but before the outlets, the installation of a UZM is provided - this is a protective device with installation of the upper and lower voltage limits, at which the device transmits the external network through itself. And even in the summer, it often worked for me on the upper voltage limit set to 240V, that is, 250 and 380 V could easily come to home appliances if someone mixed up the phase in the substation with zero.

    In addition, a differential automatic machine (automatic + RCD) is installed on all circuits that are somehow connected to water: a bathroom, a washing machine, a boiler, and a kitchen. This was also done so that in case of a leakage or a phase hit the water main or just when a person comes in contact with a socket in these objects, protection will work. But it will not work without proper grounding.

    I used the pin earthing with a copper pin with a length of 6 meters (the groundwater level is 4-5 meters). It clogs in half an hour even through the upper clay layer, and afterwards with a wire with a cross section of 16 mm2 is output to the shield. The grounding resistance did not check, but judging by the fact that the last meter and a half was driven in almost by hand, the pin entered the sand with water.

    As for automata, here it is necessary to adhere to the following relationship:

    Lighting 10A-> wire cross-section 1.5 mm 2
    Sockets 16A-> wire cross-section 2.5 mm 2
    Boiler 20A-> wire cross-section 4 mm 2
    Backup power 25A-> wire cross-section 6 mm 2

    Step 5. Power backup

    As I wrote above, the lighting is reserved for me with a battery and LED strips that can work autonomously for quite a long time. The battery itself is supported by the charger in a buffer mode under a voltage of 13.6V - so it does not discharge or recharge.

    As for reserving the power supply of the whole house, here I went in a proven way using reliable Russian technology. The first thing I decided to do was to place the entire reserve, the server and IT part of the house in one place, so I chose a two-meter server rack. Under it, I ordered a stabilizer and an inverter from the company Mikroart - they manufacture equipment both in separate cases for installation on the shelves, and in standard 19-inch cases for installation in a rack. From the available range I chose a 9 kW stabilizer (with a margin) and a 6 kW inverter. Now I will explain how it works in steps:

    1. Voltage, entering the house, passes through the UZM, where it is cut off when exceeding 240V or when the voltage drops below 170V.
    2. Next, the mains supply goes to the stabilizer and is aligned to 220V.
    3. After the stabilizer, the power goes to the hybrid inverter, which keeps the batteries in a charged state.
    4. Power after the inverter enters the shield, where it is distributed to the loads at home: sockets, 220V lighting, powering the pump station and other technical needs.

    And now I will tell how it looks in practice. In any village and village, the distance from the transformer to the end user can be measured in kilometers. And the farther you are from the transformer, the more noticeable the voltage drops will be. And if the voltage drop for modern switching power supplies is not so critical, then for many engines, for example, a refrigerator compressor, it can be deadly. Pumping station engines also do not like jumps and surges during operation, and a motor that has burned down due to power surges is no longer guaranteed. Therefore, the mains supply, getting into my house, first stabilizes on the high-speed inverter CH-LCD "Energy", and then passes through the inverter MAP Dominator. If there is a jump beyond the established limits, or the network is completely disconnected, then the inverter will start working on the existing batteries and continue to maintain the power supply at home. As soon as the power is restored, the inverter will switch to network broadcast and charge the batteries. What I liked about this technique is the presence of the built-in Malina microcomputer, which sends alerts to the mail (you can also in SMS, if you connect a modem with a sim card) about disabling or enabling the external network. Recently, an application for Android has appeared - I collected several raspberries there at once and you can monitor their status remotely. Thus, I always know if there is electricity in the village and how much battery life is left. In general, during the stay, at least once a month the electricity is disconnected for a period of 1 to 4 hours. It would be possible to suffer, but then we would have to do without water, toilet, ventilation, the fridge. Yes, and sometimes the work requires constant presence in touch, and a laptop battery, when fully immersed in work, may not last more than a couple of hours.


    So, the house has a redundant power supply over 220V, it has backup lighting with 12-volt LED strips and protects all consumers from power surges. Thanks to the use of cables that do not support combustion, the correctly chosen cross-section of wires and the corresponding nominal values ​​of the automata, the wiring cannot catch fire. Spending on machines and dividing the power supply to the circuits in different rooms, we managed to achieve independent power supply and ease of maintenance of the electrical system at home. Simply put: everything is clear, simple and reliable. And now I am ready to answer your questions.

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