College IT infrastructure. What is, what would be desirable and how correctly

    Good day to all!
    For several months now I have been working at a forestry college in Ulan-Ude. And although my position is still called an “electronics engineer”, I carry out the functions, it seems to me, of a system administrator, enikey, a “specialist” in laying cables, installing sockets, also a photographer, a video operator, etc. etc.

    Immediately make a reservation that this topic was written at the request of the user MuRADiN , which he expressed in a comment on this article. It will have more questions than answers, because he thought primarily with the aim that knowledgeable people would suggest some solutions and point out errors. Well, and I hope that for beginners "system administrators" of my level (especially those working in education) as well as computer science teachers, something will be useful.

    Next, I will talk about what we managed to achieve, what I would like to receive, and ask questions that might be interesting for someone to answer.

    Initial data

    When I arrived, the situation looked like this:
    Number of PCs: About 120 (the inventory was not at the highest level, “paper”, so the exact number is still unknown)
    Network: Peer-to-peer. Not all are connected to the network, but 60 percent. Using both switches and WI-FI routers.
    Internet: ADSL, 4 Mbps
    Proxy server: Squid + SquidGuard on FreeBSD
    DHCP server: no
    Users:Most of the workers are people of “middle” and “above-average” age with a very low level of “computer literacy”. College students are, for the most part, children from dysfunctional families, dubious companies, poorly studied or not finished school, etc.
    Of course, there is no domain, licensed software is practically not used (partly due to the fact that many do not know whether it is licensed or not, partly due to a lack or irrational use of funds, and partly due to the heavy workload of teachers who due to the latest idioticreforms in education, simply not up to it), a separate room for the work of "electronic engineers" (and we have 2 pieces), where it would be possible to disassemble, assemble a computer, vacuum or something else, either. You have to work in the back room of an informatics office, the hostess of which is very upset when there is a different "trash" there. There is a 1C-school server on a machine with Windows XP, several folders for the entire network are shared on the same machine (!). Moreover, they go to these folders because of XP restrictions on the principle of “who succeeded, he / she is slippers ...”, and who did not succeed, they scold “programmers” and complain that the network is not working.
    ZP is ~ 13 thousand rubles, a working day from 8:00 to 17:00

    What is done

    - A conversation was held using obscure words and pictures, during which they managed to convince the authorities of the need for a domain. Ordered (and now 2 licenses for windows server 2008 r2 and licenses for connecting to it have already been received). Ordered, approved, but so far (it is necessary to conduct a tender) iron has not been bought for these servers.
    - The need for a separate room has been proven. Though with difficulty, we were allotted the same room in the basement.
    - The OS Xbuntu linux and Lubuntu linux (old computers) are installed on public computers in the library and in the self-study room of the hostel, which made it possible to make at least some groundwork for the implementation of open source software in college.
    - The portal of the IT department was organized inside the network, which housed: Page of electronic applications for the department, news and announcements of the department, instructions for users. After authorization, administrators on the same page have links to enter the web interfaces of the mail server (on FreeBSD) and the intranet jabber server.
    By the way, this portal is implemented on Drupal for free by my friend qindman .
    Thank you so much, Andrey!
    It looks something like this:

    - Initiation of open source software and explanatory work with colleagues that if Windows is licensed (like any software)
    - Teachers were given application forms for training classes in order to bring everything to a common denominator and avoid misunderstandings such as “but I asked for that program, but you didn’t install it for me”. In addition, this list is easy to analyze and identify software that can be replaced with free software, for example.
    - In one of the training classes, it turned out to deal with MAC OS on makmini and make timid attempts to prompt the teacher to use them in training (so far to no avail)

    It all goes tight, with a creak, but it does. Which I rejoice in.

    Future plans and questions:

    - Of course, I want a full-fledged domain with AD and roaming profiles (there is no practical experience in organizing a domain, but sometime you need to start ...)
    Question: Should each student make a separate account? Or is it enough to make a few sample ones (for example, "student_I-kurs", "student_II-kurs")?
    - I would like to correctly determine which servers will be on physical PCs and which ones on virtual ones.
    In particular:
    1) Win server 2008 r2 (by the way, there are 2 of them, how best to use this fact?)
    2) 1C-school
    3) Clonezilla-server with the ability to network download through it
    4) Proxy
    5) Web server with a portal
    6) Testing server "SM-test" (a lightweight thing, it can work just on the desktop)
    7) Something like FreeNAS (for backups and file storage, for example. Is it worth it?)
    8) mail server (postfix)
    - Raise a DHCP server, make domain authorization for a proxy
    - Make free WI-FI for students on campus with a shaper , to limit the speed
    - Transfer college to libre / open office
    If you can do this, then most non-academic PCs can be almost painless for users to transfer to linux (is it true that you will probably have to give up some features of the win server?)
    - Gradually replace licensed software, software ized in the minds of colleagues and students that stealit’s not good to use pirated programs, as well as inform about alternatives.
    There is an idea to organize something like a circle or courses for everyone, where you can talk about free analogs of familiar software, about using Linux at home, about some simple ways to protect yourself from viruses and etc.
    - Introduce a software method for inventorying technology.
    I look so far towards SpiceWorks , but maybe there is something better?
    - Fly into space (joke :))

    Maybe I forgot or missed something?
    Who is interested in these thoughts, who went through this, or just as I look closely and gain experience, please speak in the comments.
    Thanks for attention!

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