# Priority questions: Nyquist, Shannon or Kotelnikov?

On the priority of work in the field of information transfer.

The pioneer in this contemporary issue is V.A. Kotelnikov. During graduate school in MPEI were published in 1932. works, one of which was called "On the bandwidth of" ether "and wire in telecommunications" and declared to the report of the I All-Union Congress on the technical reconstruction of communications and the development of low-current industry. The congress did not take place. It was published in 1933. as material for the report (accepted for publication in

November 1932). Which is the official confirmation of priority. Finishing graduate school, Vladimir reported on his work at the Academic Council. The report was approved, the work "On bandwidth ..." did not understand- "... it seems true, but science fiction."

Firstly, this work indicated promising directions for the development of communications, and cut off deadlock directions. Secondly, in the informational aspect of communication problems, digital transmission of information, the famous

Kotelnikov theorem, was mathematically justified . In fact, this work contained 7 theorems.

The one that Shannon and others like him call the "theorem of counting," which he published 15 years later in 1948. After, in the 1970s with the development of electronics, there was a natural surge in interest in the digital transmission of information. In 1977 a question arose when setting priorities and suggested the name WKS-theorem, Whittaker-Kotelnikov-Shannon.

In 1999 The Eduard Rein Foundation, in summarizing the outstanding scientific achievements of the 20th century, awarded the prize to Soviet scientist Vladimir Alexandrovich Kotelnikov in the nomination “for fundamental research” for “the first mathematically precisely formulated and published reference theorem”.

Another interesting point.

The name of G. Nyquist pops up (English Harry Nyquist), who was probably one of the first to understand and express the idea that the signal samples should differ in time intervals equal to

approximately the reverse band of its spectral width. This often gives rise, especially to Western scholars, to use the term “Nyquist sampling rule”. But his reasoning related to the problem of undistorted transmission of a telegraph signal, although they were close to the problem of transmitting an undistorted transmission of an analog signal. Professor Luke D., in an article on the appropriation of the sampling theorem, points out this: “the first scientist to precisely formulate the sampling theorem and to apply it to the problem of communication theory and technology is probably V. Kotelnikov.”

A small digression and also on priorities.

In 1939 Vladimir Alexandrovich created communications equipment on one side lane and assembled on his own, naturally not one, because industry refused: “No one has ever

did ". It was installed but not accepted on the Moscow-Khabarovsk line. Not accepted: “Easy to eavesdrop.” After reading the article by H. Dudley, Kotelnikov created speech encryption equipment and

presented its idea in the report “Basic Provisions of Automatic Encryption” on June 19, 1941. This document first formulated the requirements for mathematically non

- decryptable systems with proof of the impossibility of decryption. There was no open publication (or maybe already?).

C. Shannon September 1, 1945 outlined approaches to building strong encryption systems; I saw an open press report in 1949.

Brief revision of “Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk”, conferences and symposiums, July 2006, volume 176, No. 7

Detailed material with mathematical calculations can be downloaded here .

In conclusion, I can say very often in scientific and practical literature foreign authors are silent, ascribing to themselves or, in extreme cases, belittling Russian-Soviet-Russian achievements and priorities.

The next publication will be a presentation of the question “Who is the inventor of the radio, Popov or Marconi?” If I have the same fire in the aft compartment as today.

The pioneer in this contemporary issue is V.A. Kotelnikov. During graduate school in MPEI were published in 1932. works, one of which was called "On the bandwidth of" ether "and wire in telecommunications" and declared to the report of the I All-Union Congress on the technical reconstruction of communications and the development of low-current industry. The congress did not take place. It was published in 1933. as material for the report (accepted for publication in

November 1932). Which is the official confirmation of priority. Finishing graduate school, Vladimir reported on his work at the Academic Council. The report was approved, the work "On bandwidth ..." did not understand- "... it seems true, but science fiction."

Firstly, this work indicated promising directions for the development of communications, and cut off deadlock directions. Secondly, in the informational aspect of communication problems, digital transmission of information, the famous

Kotelnikov theorem, was mathematically justified . In fact, this work contained 7 theorems.

The one that Shannon and others like him call the "theorem of counting," which he published 15 years later in 1948. After, in the 1970s with the development of electronics, there was a natural surge in interest in the digital transmission of information. In 1977 a question arose when setting priorities and suggested the name WKS-theorem, Whittaker-Kotelnikov-Shannon.

In 1999 The Eduard Rein Foundation, in summarizing the outstanding scientific achievements of the 20th century, awarded the prize to Soviet scientist Vladimir Alexandrovich Kotelnikov in the nomination “for fundamental research” for “the first mathematically precisely formulated and published reference theorem”.

Another interesting point.

The name of G. Nyquist pops up (English Harry Nyquist), who was probably one of the first to understand and express the idea that the signal samples should differ in time intervals equal to

approximately the reverse band of its spectral width. This often gives rise, especially to Western scholars, to use the term “Nyquist sampling rule”. But his reasoning related to the problem of undistorted transmission of a telegraph signal, although they were close to the problem of transmitting an undistorted transmission of an analog signal. Professor Luke D., in an article on the appropriation of the sampling theorem, points out this: “the first scientist to precisely formulate the sampling theorem and to apply it to the problem of communication theory and technology is probably V. Kotelnikov.”

A small digression and also on priorities.

In 1939 Vladimir Alexandrovich created communications equipment on one side lane and assembled on his own, naturally not one, because industry refused: “No one has ever

did ". It was installed but not accepted on the Moscow-Khabarovsk line. Not accepted: “Easy to eavesdrop.” After reading the article by H. Dudley, Kotelnikov created speech encryption equipment and

presented its idea in the report “Basic Provisions of Automatic Encryption” on June 19, 1941. This document first formulated the requirements for mathematically non

- decryptable systems with proof of the impossibility of decryption. There was no open publication (or maybe already?).

C. Shannon September 1, 1945 outlined approaches to building strong encryption systems; I saw an open press report in 1949.

Brief revision of “Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk”, conferences and symposiums, July 2006, volume 176, No. 7

Detailed material with mathematical calculations can be downloaded here .

In conclusion, I can say very often in scientific and practical literature foreign authors are silent, ascribing to themselves or, in extreme cases, belittling Russian-Soviet-Russian achievements and priorities.

The next publication will be a presentation of the question “Who is the inventor of the radio, Popov or Marconi?” If I have the same fire in the aft compartment as today.