Root microbes

Since 2007, my fate has been connected with microbes: for 13 years now they have not let me go. According to my estimates, this is much more than 10,000 hours - something about 30,000. As with any field of knowledge, at some point the brain begins to throw up new ideas. I want to talk about one of them.

The word indibiome appeared in my head. The Russian sonorous analogue of this term - “root microbes” - is in Google’s search results seven times, with three mentions being made on the sites and texts I created. I prefer the English-language analogue of this word. Indibiome comes from indigenous microbiome (similar to indigenous people). For the first time, I came across indigenous peoples a few years ago while filming a documentary about reindeer herders. Indigenous peoples and indigenous microbes have not let me go since then.

The term indibiome in Google SERPs occurs 396 times. Surely there are words or terms coined by someone with the same statistics. At first glance it seems that indibiome is just a rare word. If you study the search engine results, you can find that this word is used in one Italian book ( Lodovico Antonio Muratori, Filippo Argelati - 1723 - Italy ). However, if you look closely, it becomes clear that the scanned copy of Google books is wrong. On the same page, the letter b in other words looks different. The remaining 395 mentions contain several more erroneous readings by Google, but for the most part, the publications originated from one author.

This word has both meaning and several meanings. Everyone can invent words, but if they do not adapt to the language and do not show different facets of meaning depending on the environment, then they are useless for expressing thoughts. The indibiome has several meanings, the word even claims to be a separate philosophy, lifestyle, way of human behavior.

The first meaning of indibiome is primordial microbes. Microbes live in the human body, and over the past hundred years their profile has changed quite a lot, many types of microbes have most likely disappeared from the human body. Often their place is occupied by other microbes, including those of industrial origin, including probiotic strains. Company Chr. HansenFor example, it produces several hundred thousand strains for the food industry: for the creation of cheeses, starter cultures, kefir, yogurt, etc. In such a situation, it is logical to compare what microbial composition was before, before the violation (indibiome), and what it is now. Representatives of the new science of microbial communities (microbiomes) conduct such a discussion quite actively.

The second meaning of indibiome arises when it comes to microbes inherent in a certain habitat. In the scientific literature, this meaning is quite common (see the list of links at the bottom of the text), indibiome conveys the belonging of microbes to the ecosystem: indigenous gut biome, indigenous microbiome of plant. Everything seems to be clear with the meaning here.

The third meaning is associated with microbes of indigenous peoples. In fact, the word people fell out of the phrase indigenous people microbiome ( link to google scholar). This meaning is correlated to some extent with the meaning of "primordial." Scientists are studying the microbes of indigenous peoples to understand how we all looked in the West before the advent of preservatives and antibiotics - perhaps the main drivers of changes in the composition of microbes in human civilization over the past 100 years. My own observations in this area began to form during an expedition to Yamal with the team of the documentary film “War of the Worlds. Bacteria ”for the First channel ( link ). The skin and intestines of wildly living people looked very healthy, which surprised me. Perhaps an understanding of this phenomenon began to be laid precisely then.

“Indigenous microbes” are related to health. It is important to note that this article does not have a goal to postulate: indibiome is the only health option. The text is rather a reflection, a hypothesis, a sum of facts and, most importantly, an invitation to discussion. Below I will provide 13 arguments in favor of the importance of “root germs”.

The Arising of Life Argument

Two billion years ago, the planet we were so used to looked different. The continents were flat, and the oceans teeming with cyanobacteria were dark brown. Stromatolites built by these bacteria in shallow water released oxygen and saturated the atmosphere.

The color of the sky began to change towards blue only 2 billion years ago, after the atmosphere was saturated with oxygen. No doubt bacteria gave birth to plants, animals and fungi. With a low degree of probability, since any bacterium came from one of those that lived billions of years ago, in bacteria you can find molecules that have been in this form for billions of years. For amino acids or nucleic acids, this seems to be possible. It is very important to feel this moment: no, not the presence of an ancient molecule, but that all life came from bacteria.


Argument "The evolution of digestion and bacteria"

Most of all, bacteria like it when it's dark, damp and a lot of food. The intestines of 7 billion people carry 700 billion trillion bacteria or 700 sextillion bacteria. Starting from the very first intestine, most likely, arising not earlier than the first fossil known to us - Dickenson600 million years ago, bacteria were supposed to live in the intestines. Further, the immune system was supposed to appear as a means of controlling the composition of bacteria. And, finally, the perception organs and the brain appeared as appendages of the intestine, ensuring its survival and reproduction. Improving with each new species, bacteria learned to live with more and more new organisms. And although, theoretically, lactobacillus dinosaur can take root in our intestines, our “root” has passed a significant evolutionary distance, which can be seen in its DNA.

Feel this thesis: indibiome is the pinnacle of the evolution of the microbial community for each species with its habitat and digestive system. It is interesting that these communities are open and exchange among themselves. To describe or calculate such a complex community dynamics is not yet realistic.

Argument "Plants, Nutrition and Bacteria"

This argument is very simple. In the human body there is a limited number of enzymes, and the number of variations in chemical modifications of the fibers of the walls of plants is infinite. Even taking into account the non-specific activity of enzymes, it is difficult to imagine that among the 30,000 genes in our DNA there are all the necessary enzymes for the decomposition of fibers. Yes, this is not necessary when there are trillions of bacteria in the intestines: let them learn, adapt to more and more new fibers. It is clear that evolution has made a choice in the direction of such a symbiosis. A person produces fibers, and bacteria digest them. Moreover, a bacterium lives on every plant in nature, which easily digests it under the right conditions of temperature and pH. Indigenous lactobacilli can be isolated from any green leaf. On this, by the way, fermentation is based.

The argument "Inflammation as the basis of disease"

The immune system can think of a few things. The immune system thinks about the intestines. If everything is not ok there, then she is busy with just that and it will not work to distract her for anything else. It’s easier to relieve inflammation and then help her fight, for example, cancer, which is now being done as part of advanced research on cancer immunotherapy technology. ( link ). There is a lot of material at the request of "microbiome inflammation diabetes" or " microbiome inflammation obesity ". It is believed that one of the reasons is a violation of the original microbiome (indibiome is with us again).

The argument "Bacteria in art (Science Art)"

Visually, bacteria are very attractive. Microbial substance (bacteria and mold) becomes an object of art. I will give only links to artists whom I personally know
- a Wolfgang Hunter project that takes old gelatin films and grows bacteria on them that eats gelatin, make the picture “drain” and leave patterns.
The second artist from Russia is Daria Fedorova, she grows universes on cups of incredible colors. ( link to The Village).

And, of course, Nastya Valamova with prints for the Nelly Nedre clothing collection .


Searching for bacterial art on Google has even more pictures.

Argument "Cancer, organ transplantation and microbiomes"

An interesting application of the microbiome in modern clinics is not to prevent cancer (as yet), but to restore human health between courses of chemotherapy. At least 20% of patients suffer from side effects on digestion (mucositis, colitis, diarrhea). When bone marrow transplantation, it is necessary to completely suppress the entire microflora, until the donor brain begins to produce its own immune cells. And if you take the microbes before the transplant and then return them to the body, then this type of microbiota transplantation is called autologous .

Argument "Career in microbial research"

On the international site of job announcements, there are 427 positions with the word microbiome ( link ), on a linked-in there are 522 of them ( link ). This is dynamics, a new profession is emerging, while the White House (USA) has created a microbiome research support program in which money is used to create tools and new jobs, the amount of $ 500 million consists of government money ($ 100 million) and funds from private foundations and companies .

Argument "Technologies for the production of healthy and wholesome food"

Fermentation , as one of the directions in the development of immunology, is now booming, because along with properly "digested" food, useful types of bacteria enter the body, most often it is bifido and lacto. Bacteria are used to preserve and preserve foods without preservatives. Companies are wondering if microbes can help feed the planet ( video link ).

Argument "The history of the health of one person and his germs"

From childhood I was often treated with antibiotics. The last knee surgery, coupled with the metabolism of the triathlete, led to an increase in body weight from 75 to 92 kg. A body weight of 92 kg with a growth of 176 gives BMI = 29.7 ( here you can count yours), with an obesity border of BMI = 30. For 11 months I experienced a keto diet, starvation 4 days dry, an increase in fiber diet from 15 g. up to 50 gr., feces transplant, Cambo frog venom and almost all popular probiotics (4-5 species) in the UK I will be glad to devote a separate article to this, there are microbiota analyzes, photos, measurements, video materials and recordings of CGMS (continuous glucose monitoring systems) . Now my weight is 67.7 kg. Excess weight is gone as a result of the restoration of microbiota and a decrease in inflammation.

Argument "Psyche and Microbiome"

The enteric nervous system is the main depot of serotonin and dopamine. Although the molecules themselves do not cross the blood-brain barrier, their precursors, abundantly produced by the microbiome, pass through. Perhaps indibiome representatives are responsible for happiness. Microbial transplantation helps with autism ( link ).

Argument "Microbiome of the skin, lungs and reproductive system"

Proper bacteria on the skin can cure many problems. As an example, AOBiome's portfolio of clinical trials ( link ), several drugs in the second phase, and the company began by removing the bacterium from the horse and transplanting it onto the skin of a person so that he could not wash and smell. Indibiome here refers to our lost flora, most likely this was due to strong detergents: now human skin is populated by conditional pathogens. Another example: the microbiota of the vagina, which is responsible not only for the health of the woman, but also for the colonization of the intestines of the newborn. Indibiome is under attack, more than 20% of women in the developed world and more than 50% in developing countries suffer from bacterial vaginosis, and in half of the cases there are no symptoms like itching or smell, which means there are no complaints or treatment.

Argument "Traditional practices of the peoples of the world and microbiomes"

The practices of indigenous peoples - from kisses to the use of medicinal plants - speak of their intuitive knowledge of what indibiome is (again - I will be glad to make a separate article for readers with an overview of the studies and my understanding of the relationships).

Argument "The future of our planet"

If you learn to eat less and get more from food, as well as grow plants sustainably, using soil remediation technologies and organic greenhouses, you will not need to borrow from future generations. Much less resources can be spent on creating, transporting and storing food. Happy people are happy countries. There will be no wars. We just need to find an approach to this indibiome. "

I hope these arguments are a good occasion for discussion or a change in nutrition for the better, readers may want to cherish and cherish their microbiome. This was the purpose of the article.

Links to scientific publications about indigenous microbiome :

  • Schmidt R. et al. Effects of bacterial inoculants on the indigenous microbiome and secondary metabolites of chamomile plants // Frontiers in microbiology. - 2014 .-- T. 5 .-- S. 64.
  • Kumar PS, Mason MR Mouthguards: does the indigenous microbiome play a role in maintaining oral health? // Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology. - 2015. - T. 5. - S. 35.
  • Wilding LA et al. Repeated dose (28-day) administration of silver nanoparticles of varied size and coating does not significantly alter the indigenous murine gut microbiome // Nanotoxicology. - 2016. - T. 10. - No. 5. - S. 513-520.
  • Barzegari A., Saei AA Designing probiotics with respect to the native microbiome // Future microbiology. - 2012. - T. 7. - No. 5. - S. 571-575.

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