# "Thoughts aloud" about the program of Roscosmos on flights to the moon

More recently, Roskosmos published this video, which shows the scheme of flight to the moon.

To carry out such flights, the following will be developed:

- Angara-A5 LV

- Federation spacecraft

- Lunar spacecraft

- KVTK (Oxygen-hydrogen booster block of heavy class) The

approximate flight scheme is as follows:

1. The launch of the Federation weighing 16.5 tons into the low Earth orbit.

2. Docking of the "Federation" with the CTEC , flight to the orbit of the moon.

3. Launch of the lunar ship into orbit of the Earth.

4. Docking of the lunar ship with the CTEC , flight to the orbit of the moon.

5. Docking "Federation" with the lunar ship.

6. Landing on the moon, research.

7. Take off from the moon.

8. Unmounting the lunar ship, the flight of the "Federation" to the Earth, entry into the atmosphere at the second space speed.

For the first four points, the Angara launch vehicle will be used in configurations with different load capacities.

I will try to offer an alternative flight option, in which it would be possible to make it much easier and save a lot of money, not to develop a "Federation" and the Angara.

1) Even during the Lunar race in the USSR, the Soyuz 7K-LOK spacecraft was developed :

It weighed 9.95 tons and was intended for two people to fly to the moon with one of them landing on the moon. In fact, it is a modified " Union "“with increased thermal protection of the descent vehicle and greater autonomy of flight. I propose to modify the Soyuz 7K-LOK for flights of 3 people to the Moon. This will increase the mass to about 11 tons. It will be launched into orbit by the Zenit-2 or the Soyuz-2-3 launch vehicles .

2) lunar ship will have to be developed from scratch anyway. American lunar module weighing 15 tons, it landed on the moon astronaut 2 per flight.

But it can be greatly facilitated. There were 6 batteries: 2 in the take-off stage weighing 56.7 kg each and 4 in the landing mass of 61.2 kg each. The capacity of the batteries in the take-off stage was 16,600 watt-hours, in the landing, 46,500 watt-hours. Total 63,100 watt hours. During the Apollo 14 mission, the astronauts spent 33 hours on the moon. Therefore, the power consumed by the lunar module is approximately equal to 1.9 kW / h. Due to the imperfection of space technology in those days, there was such a huge consumption of electricity. Approximately 120 kg of fuel was needed to lift these 2 batteries into the orbit of the moon (dV = 2300 m / s). Total we get the extra 230 kg in the take-off stage. For landing all this stuff on the moon (230 + 245 kg), about 500 kg of fuel was needed. Total we get the extra 1000 kg due to some batteries. They can be replaced with a pair of fuel cells.

You can also use composites, this will save an extra 500-1000 kg. Total mass of the lunar ship with a crew of 2 people will be about 13.5 tons.

3) Modernization of upper stages DM and DM-03 for the possibility of docking them with each other.

So, now I will describe a possible chronology of flight to the moon with all the technical justifications:

1. Launch of a lunar ship weighing 13.5 tons on a 200-km high-altitude launch vehicle using Zenit-2 LV ( or Soyuz-2-3 )

2. Launch of the DM booster (Fuel mass 15 tons, empty 3.4 tons. Total 18.4 tons) using the Proton-M LV , docking with the lunar ship.

3. Launch of four DM-03 booster blocks (fuel weight 18.7 tons, empty mass 2.3 tons. Total 21 tons. MI = 361 sec.) Using the Proton-M LV , parallel docking behind the DM booster block.

4. Launch of the updated Union Soyuz 7K-LOK with the Zenit-2 LV ( or Soyuz-2-3 ), docking with the assembled complex.

5. Starting the engines of four upper stages DM-03. dV = 3150 m / s, this is enough to fly to the moon.

6. Starting the engine block "DM". dV = 1520. Braking, access to the orbit of the moon 100x100 km.

7. Docking of the lunar ship, landing on the moon. 2 people conduct research on the moon, and one is waiting for them in the Union .

8. Take-off of the lunar module, docking in the orbit of the moon, transfer of all astronauts to the Soyuz , detachment of the lunar ship, departure to a safe distance, turning on the engines of the lunar ship, the fall of the LC to the moon.

9. Starting the Union’s engine, flying to Earth, entering the atmosphere at the 2nd space velocity, landing.

Advantages of the flight scheme I proposed in comparison with the Roskosmos scheme:

1) Docking in the Moon orbit is much more complicated than on Earth, it requires more fuel and accurate calculations. Therefore, the docking will take place in the orbit of the Earth.

2) There is no need to develop a new LV and the “ Federation ”, which will save money and allow more flights to the moon.

To carry out such flights, the following will be developed:

- Angara-A5 LV

- Federation spacecraft

- Lunar spacecraft

- KVTK (Oxygen-hydrogen booster block of heavy class) The

approximate flight scheme is as follows:

1. The launch of the Federation weighing 16.5 tons into the low Earth orbit.

2. Docking of the "Federation" with the CTEC , flight to the orbit of the moon.

3. Launch of the lunar ship into orbit of the Earth.

4. Docking of the lunar ship with the CTEC , flight to the orbit of the moon.

5. Docking "Federation" with the lunar ship.

6. Landing on the moon, research.

7. Take off from the moon.

8. Unmounting the lunar ship, the flight of the "Federation" to the Earth, entry into the atmosphere at the second space speed.

For the first four points, the Angara launch vehicle will be used in configurations with different load capacities.

I will try to offer an alternative flight option, in which it would be possible to make it much easier and save a lot of money, not to develop a "Federation" and the Angara.

1) Even during the Lunar race in the USSR, the Soyuz 7K-LOK spacecraft was developed :

It weighed 9.95 tons and was intended for two people to fly to the moon with one of them landing on the moon. In fact, it is a modified " Union "“with increased thermal protection of the descent vehicle and greater autonomy of flight. I propose to modify the Soyuz 7K-LOK for flights of 3 people to the Moon. This will increase the mass to about 11 tons. It will be launched into orbit by the Zenit-2 or the Soyuz-2-3 launch vehicles .

2) lunar ship will have to be developed from scratch anyway. American lunar module weighing 15 tons, it landed on the moon astronaut 2 per flight.

But it can be greatly facilitated. There were 6 batteries: 2 in the take-off stage weighing 56.7 kg each and 4 in the landing mass of 61.2 kg each. The capacity of the batteries in the take-off stage was 16,600 watt-hours, in the landing, 46,500 watt-hours. Total 63,100 watt hours. During the Apollo 14 mission, the astronauts spent 33 hours on the moon. Therefore, the power consumed by the lunar module is approximately equal to 1.9 kW / h. Due to the imperfection of space technology in those days, there was such a huge consumption of electricity. Approximately 120 kg of fuel was needed to lift these 2 batteries into the orbit of the moon (dV = 2300 m / s). Total we get the extra 230 kg in the take-off stage. For landing all this stuff on the moon (230 + 245 kg), about 500 kg of fuel was needed. Total we get the extra 1000 kg due to some batteries. They can be replaced with a pair of fuel cells.

You can also use composites, this will save an extra 500-1000 kg. Total mass of the lunar ship with a crew of 2 people will be about 13.5 tons.

3) Modernization of upper stages DM and DM-03 for the possibility of docking them with each other.

So, now I will describe a possible chronology of flight to the moon with all the technical justifications:

1. Launch of a lunar ship weighing 13.5 tons on a 200-km high-altitude launch vehicle using Zenit-2 LV ( or Soyuz-2-3 )

2. Launch of the DM booster (Fuel mass 15 tons, empty 3.4 tons. Total 18.4 tons) using the Proton-M LV , docking with the lunar ship.

3. Launch of four DM-03 booster blocks (fuel weight 18.7 tons, empty mass 2.3 tons. Total 21 tons. MI = 361 sec.) Using the Proton-M LV , parallel docking behind the DM booster block.

4. Launch of the updated Union Soyuz 7K-LOK with the Zenit-2 LV ( or Soyuz-2-3 ), docking with the assembled complex.

5. Starting the engines of four upper stages DM-03. dV = 3150 m / s, this is enough to fly to the moon.

6. Starting the engine block "DM". dV = 1520. Braking, access to the orbit of the moon 100x100 km.

7. Docking of the lunar ship, landing on the moon. 2 people conduct research on the moon, and one is waiting for them in the Union .

8. Take-off of the lunar module, docking in the orbit of the moon, transfer of all astronauts to the Soyuz , detachment of the lunar ship, departure to a safe distance, turning on the engines of the lunar ship, the fall of the LC to the moon.

9. Starting the Union’s engine, flying to Earth, entering the atmosphere at the 2nd space velocity, landing.

Advantages of the flight scheme I proposed in comparison with the Roskosmos scheme:

1) Docking in the Moon orbit is much more complicated than on Earth, it requires more fuel and accurate calculations. Therefore, the docking will take place in the orbit of the Earth.

2) There is no need to develop a new LV and the “ Federation ”, which will save money and allow more flights to the moon.