Digital States: How They Developed

    In the last article, we figured out what digital states are inherently, what ideas they are based on and what were the first working systems in the USA and the USSR.

    Now we propose moving to an important period when the possibility of combining disparate technologies on one platform met with the desire to make them massive. / PXHERE / CC

    Towards the consumer

    In the review of the first systems of the digital state, we stopped at the 1980s and noted that the thematic research groups had formed in the States by that time and several IT solutions had been introduced. For example, filing tax returns through a single information portal.

    In the 90s, the term “digital state” did not yet exist. It was proposed later, but individual ideas were already in use. In 1993, US President Bill Clinton became preoccupied with the problem of the effectiveness of the state apparatus and formed an analytical group. In the same year, she presented a report that proposed steps to reduce the level of bureaucracy and reorientation to the needs of citizens.

    In 1997, the report “ Modernization of government systems based on information technology” was released.". The main idea of ​​the Central Committee was formed in it - the ministries were to start using IT to increase the efficiency of interaction between citizens, business and the state. The report focused on the synergies of public services and technology. Based on these developments, a “ Digital State Memorandum ” was formed . It was addressed to the heads of executive bodies and departments, which later connected to the work.

    The memorandum set out a number of guidelines for the concept of TF. One of the main principles related to working with information and ordered to organize it not by separate departments, but by categories of services. The second principle is the openness and ease of interaction between citizens and government organizations and the provision of information in an understandable way. The third is the security and confidentiality of such interactions.

    In December 1999, the Clinton administration made the first attempts to introduce digital state systems nationwide. By 2000, already 43% of Americans were providedInternet access, so that the situation was conducive to the implementation of the idea of ​​a public digital portal of public services. It was launched in 2000 on the domain, now it is renamed to

    In 2001, George W. Bush succeeded Bill Clinton as president of the United States. His presidential program included the development of the CG concept: “ Enhanced Digital State ” envisaged the need to improve IT in the public sector, simplify business processes and integrate information flows of various government ministries and departments.

    To achieve these goals, a special working group was established in 2002. She chose24 initiatives and prepared a business case for each of them, assessing potential costs, benefits and risks. Among them were services such as E-Authentication (portal of digital signatures); (government benefits portal); Business Gateway (portal for business).

    The central event in the process of expanding TG systems was the adoption of the “ Digital State Law ” in 2002. Its provisions established a special department in the Office of Management and Budget and encouraged the use of IT in the provision of public services and interdepartmental communications.

    In 2003 was publishedupdated digital state strategy. She put the interests of citizens in the spotlight - in the document there were such phrases as, for example, “three-click access”.

    Other significant ideas related to interagency communication, attracting and retaining a skilled workforce to support all IT initiatives. During the year following the publication of the law, such portals as (for coordinating volunteer groups) and (for publishing official documents of state bodies) were launched.

    The strategy also touched on recommendations for working with the information architecture of government enterprises (Federal Enterprise Architecture Framework). The first version of best practices was launched in 1999. It is based on the Zakman Model .

    The main task is to increase the efficiency of the ministries and departments. The 2003 digital state strategy emphasized the role of this body of best practice. He became one of the first options for an integrated approach to centralize and integrate information services.

    A 2004 study by the American Association of Public Administration and the UN confirmed that all the efforts of the US government were not in vain - the country was ahead of the rest of the UN member states in the development of TF systems.

    However, in most cases, citizens still had to either by telephone or in person to apply for public services. The problem was also that electronic forms often needed to be supplemented with paper statements with a signature, and in some states there was simply no access to any electronic public services. There was a situation when there was all the necessary infrastructure, legislation and strategy, but there was no single format for the operation of the TG systems. These authorities had to deal with in the following years.

    / Flickr / tony / cc

    Asian Digital State

    Not only the US authorities were concerned about the transition to a new level of government and public services. The leaders along with Western countries with a high level of Internet penetration are Asian states.

    So, Singapore has achieved great success on the road to building a digital state. Already in the 80s, the country began to implement the national plan for "computerization". Within its framework, the National Computer Council (NCB) was created. One of the important directions of his work was the computerization of public services. At the first stages, the council was engaged in the automation of work functions and workflow in government offices.

    In 1989, TradeNet was launched, a portal that served as a single platform for trade and logistics operations. By 2000, the country had formedIT2000 Masterplan Strategy . A significant part of it is devoted to the consolidation of IT resources around solving the problems of citizens of the country. As a result, an “Action Plan for the Implementation of the TG Concept” for 2000-2003 was proposed. His main message is that government departments should no longer be isolated from each other and provide comprehensive services.

    For example, since 2003, all Singaporeans over the age of 15 can apply for SingPass , a digital identity card for transactions with the government online services portal.

    Both China and South Korea had their own programs to create a digital state. But we will focus on Japan, which today is among the leaders in the field of digitalization of public services. In the period from 1999 to 2005, the Japanese government proposed several directions for the development of TG: Basic principles of a society based on information and communications; The law governing these principles; The e-Japan program , which combines all measures to build a digital society; and, finally, the program for constructing the TG itself.

    Already in 1997, a unified information platform was launched in the country, which brought together ministries and departments - WAN Kasumigaseki . An important step for the dissemination of the concept of TF wasadoption in 2000 of the Charter of the global information society. The main idea was that the benefits of this society should be available to all people. The document was proposed for signature by members of the G8. Russia has become one of the countries that signed the Charter.

    The origin of the digital state in Russia

    Even before the signing of the Charter in Russia, attempts were made to digitalize the public sector, for example, the creation of the “ Concept of State Information Policy ”. By 1998, it was prepared by the relevant committee of the State Duma. The concept traces an analogy with other documents of that time created in the USA. The public interest was a priority, and IT served as a tool for their service.

    The ideological continuation of the concept was the federal program “ Development of Informatization in Russia for the Period Until 2010”". She considered both practical issues such as the formation of infrastructure, and the socio-economic and moral aspects of working with IT at the state level, the observance of cultural and historical traditions, values ​​and ideals. The document has not been approved. Thus, Russia came to the signing of the Charter of the Global Information Society without an existing plan or project of a digital state. However, like other members of the G8, the country has committed itself to developing the IT sector for the benefit of society.

    Concrete measures were taken with the launch of the federal e-Russia program. It was launched in 2002, but its implementation was that only 19% of government personnel and 1% of government officials had access to the Network. The situation was reflected in the readiness indices for the digital state - for ten years Russia has not been able to advance beyond 50th place. In 2003, the United States, Chile, Australia, Mexico and the United Kingdom were among the leaders . In 2005 - the USA, Denmark, Sweden, Great Britain, South Korea. Russia was between Uruguay and the Republic of Belarus.

    However, already in 2003, Russia began to be implementedproject on the large-scale implementation of information technology in federal departments. According to Leonid Reiman, who held the post of Minister of Information Technology and Communications at that time, about 80% of departments and ministries switched to electronic document management in the early 2000s. However, summing up the program, the ministry was forced to state disappointing results. Electronic Russia did not achieve its goals, but, as Leonid Reiman later said , laid the important foundations for the development of central heating systems in Russia.

    We will talk about how the development of TG continued in our country and in other countries in the next part.

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