USPACE: Drone Time

    Airspace is an important public resource, the use of which for safe and efficient transportation is associated with the solution of two main tasks: the creation of air navigation technologies and the creation of procedures for the use of airspace based on them.

    The Russian Federation, having the largest air spaces in the world and an advantageous geographical position, can and should become a key provider of logistics aviation services.

    A special place in the development of the modern aeronautical industry is taken by the task of integrating unmanned aircraft systems into non-segregated airspace, when unmanned transportation from special operations involving the allocation and closure of airspace will become a routine everyday task. In fact, today the question is posed of creating the future air navigation system with an incomparably higher level of automation, where human participation in the control loop will be minimized.

    Sharing the airspace of unmanned and manned aircraft mainly in the lower airspace creates a fundamental basis for the development of new types of business (B2B / B2C services, the creation of high technologies, manufacturing, new infrastructure), the development of high-tech education (aircraft, electronics, IT) new jobs (primarily in scientific and engineering companies), the development of small and medium high-tech business, digitalization and automation, the development of cities and ions, creating a high-tech export potential, overall quality of life.

    The task of integrating unmanned aircraft into a single airspace has been solved by the world community for more than 10 years. In the United States, in 2011, after about 5 years of research and mission formulation, NASA, as the lead contractor and in collaboration with the US Federal Aviation Administration FAA and industry, began the planned implementation of a project to integrate unmanned aerial vehicles into US national airspace. This project aims to fill the technological and operational gaps necessary to ensure the safe integration of unmanned aerial vehicles larger than 55 pounds (25 kg) flying above 500 feet (150 m).

    During the execution of the project, three critical technologies were identified:

    • FIRST - Radio line control and management (C2), including cyber defense, and the allocation of radio frequencies, which are the most important resource of the modern world, along with oil and gas.
    • SECOND — A system of observing safe intervals and collision avoidance (Detect & Avoid - DAA), which, with technical means, will replace the remote pilot's organs of vision, the physical sensation of the vehicle and the ability to view the environment from the cockpit of the aircraft.
    • THIRD - The integration of all technologies in the validation zones, including their digital counterpart, where the operational suitability of the technologies will be confirmed by repeated tests in the process of reproducing various flight scenarios, models and simulations. In these tests a large amount of flight data will be accumulated, on the basis of which the final conclusions on the readiness of the technologies will be made.

    The basis of the solution for the flexible integration of drones into the general airspace is the technology of continuous continuous monitoring of flights in real time by deploying ground infrastructure. Due to the possibility of high-quality monitoring of the air situation in the field of observation, the Almanac monitoring systems currently being implemented in Russia will be able to safely coexist with all air traffic participants.

    Currently in Russia deployed multi- point monitoring systems for civil aviation ( MSC "Almanac"). This network of geographically distributed stations with high sensitivity and a rate of update of receiving signals from the sides for less than 1 second can provide a continuous field of observation in all classes of airspace, from low altitudes to 20 km, thereby allowing the participants to “see” the air situation according to the principle sees everyone. "

    Another element of the Almanac system is Russia's first compact airborne responder for small aircraft and Kolibri drones . A small transmitter with simple manipulations is attached to the body of a particular vehicle or aircraft. "Hummingbird" will allow the board of small aircraft or drone to become "visible" in the system "Almanac" and to ensure their safe presence in the general airspace.

    Obviously, in the future Air Navigation System, digital information technologies, digital platforms, cybersecurity, wireless data transmission systems and everything that is based on the “figure” will take a fundamental place.

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