People and organizations that have influenced the creation and development of the Internet
PS-1. The world's first artificial Earth satellite.
Hello, in this article I would like to tell you about people, structures and organizations who, in one way or another, are involved in the creation of the Internet, its development and impact on it.
It is not known for certain who is the first of the people who started talking about the Internet, but it is known from what event it all started. It happened back in 1957, when the first artificial Earth satellite was launched into space in the USSR.
After that, the US Department of Defense decided at all costs to eliminate the theoretical danger posed by the Soviet Union by combining all its research projects into a single structure. The idea was to connect all existing computers that were currently in the United States into one network, through which scientists from different universities could exchange their thoughts and results. This network was called ARPANET , it is the progenitor of all networks and the Internet. ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network) - a computer network, agencies for advanced research and development.
Korolev S.P. founder of practical cosmonautics.
At the beginning of the creation of the Internet were:
1. Soviet scientists who created the artificial Earth satellite: Korolev SP, Keldysh MV
2. The US Department of Defense, which decided that it was necessary to catch up and overtake the USSR.
3. The United States Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) , which put forward the idea that we need a computer network.
The development of a computer network was entrusted to four American universities:
1. University of California (Los Angeles).
2. Stanford Research Center.
3. University of Utah.
4. California State University (Santa Barbara).
Larry Roberts 1970
October 29, 1969, between the two computers of the universities of Los Angeles and Stanford was first established communication, from one computer to another passed the word LOGIN . Charlie Klein (passing the word) and Bill Duvall (taking the floor) participated in this landmark event, Larry Roberts , the first developer of fundamental specifications for the ARPANET network , participated as an observer (Roberts, by the way, is still “on horseback,” for example, in 2010 introduced to the public a new streaming router data distribution technology). After successfully connecting two computers to the network, computers of other universities began to be connected to it.
The text interface of the Mail program
In 1971developed a program for sending emails between computers on a network. The first Mail program was created in 1965, it was only used on one multi-user computer, the developers of the program are scientists at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT): Noel Morris and Tom Van Vleck .
In 1973, the ARPANET network became international, it was connected to a transatlantic telephone cable , thanks to this, various scientific organizations in Europe and the USA were able to exchange data more quickly. In addition to transatlantic cooperation and e-mail, the 70s also presented us with such concepts as: message boards, news groups and newsletters .
By the end of the 70s , various states and even universities had created their own computer networks, but, unfortunately, due to different standards, they could not interact with each other. In this connection, the world scientific community faced the task of developing common protocols for all and standardizing them. This problem was solved in 1983, when the TCP / IP protocol was standardized .
“Be demanding of what you are sending, and liberal to what you accept” (c)
Many first-class scientists participated in the development of common standards for network protocols, among which, John Postel deserves special mention.he is one of the main authors of such protocols as: TCP, ICMP, IP, UDP, Telnet, FTP and DNS. Also, John Postel was involved in the development of more than two hundred RFCs.
In 1984, the DNS protocol was developed and domain names were first created .
In 1984 , the Internet was steadily associated with ARPANET, but unfortunately the first violin was played by the military, who controlled everything and everything. This state of affairs categorically did not suit scientists. Therefore, in the same year, in contrast to ARPANET, they created their own network
In 1988 , a Finnish student Jarkko Ojkarinen developed the IRC protocol (Internet Relay Chat), with it, users were able to communicate with each other in real time, as well as organize conferences in which many participants could be present and communicate.
Sir Timothy John Berners-Lee
In 1989, Tim Berners-Lee , a contemporary Internet legend working for CERN, proposed the concept of the World Wide Web . And then for two years he developed a protocol HTTP, URI, URL and create hypertext markup language the HTML . Thanks to Tim Berners-Lee, a new era of the modern Internet began, where concepts such as: sites, browsers, web servers, hyperlinks, etc. began to be present.
1990noteworthy for two events, the first ceased to exist, the founder of computer networks, the great ARPANET, the second, access was made to the Internet via a telephone line using dial-up.
In 1991, the Internet was made publicly available and not only educational institutions, but also private dwellings began to be connected to it.
In 1993, the Mosaic browser was created - this is the first browser in the world with a graphical interface, due to which there was a sharp jump in the number of Internet users. Browser developers: Mark Anderssen and Eric Bean . The World Wide Web Consortium was founded
in 1994(W3C - World Wide Web Consortium) , this organization is developing and implementing common technology standards and protocols for the world wide web. In Russia, since 2012, this organization has been represented by the Higher School of Economics (National Research University Higher School of Economics) . W3C is led by Sir Timothy John Berners-Lee.
In 1995, NSFNet supercomputers stopped routing Internet traffic; this function was transferred to private provider companies .
Larry Page and Sergey Brin
In 1998, the Google search engine created by Sergey Brin and Larry Page was born. At the moment, it is the first search engine in the world and the most successful company in the IT industry. Net income in 2012 amounted to $ 11 billion. In addition to the development of search technologies, the company is trying itself in other areas, for example, in 2006 it acquired the very popular YouTube video hosting , and in 2008 Google began to distribute an open operating system for Android smartphones , which already occupies more than half of the market. From the latest news, Google will become one of the key partners of the US government, which intends to cover the entire country with free Wi-Fi.
After the search engines a significant event in the Internet, the emergence of social networks, here it is worth noting the company FaceBook founded by Mark Zuckerberg in 2004. In October 2012, Mark Zuckerberg announced the appearance of the billionth user in the system.
Toward the end of the 2000s, when Internet users began to get used to the idea that nothing new could be invented and that only existing technologies would develop, Twitter was rushing into the world , the so-called microblogging allowing you to quickly send messages to the Internet of 140 characters. Twitter creator Jack Dorsey introduced his technology in 2006. Then she had not yet mastered the minds of users, but gradually gained popularity, for example, in 2007, a daysent about 4.5 thousand tweets, and in 2010 already 65 million tweets.
Stephen Paul Jobs is one of the three founders of Apple.
I don’t know whether it is worth mentioning Apple and its influence on the development of the Internet, but many believe that it was their iPhone product that made the Internet and smartphone very friendly to each other, which undoubtedly had a positive effect on the growth in the number of network users and the amount of time spent in it .
That's basically all that I wanted to say about the development of the Internet, I hope you enjoyed it. If the text does not mention the names of worthy people of the “Internet creators” or companies, write them in a comment to the article, also if anyone knows what was the first or largest catalog of sites that had the greatest impact on the Internet.