Red Hogwarts. Series 4. Founders (part 2)

    (beginning here )

    The Revolution, as is well known, has many unpleasant habits. She not only devours her children, but also loves to juggle people, throwing them into the high heights, then dropping them into the filth of the princes. But even those who are thrown to the top, are rarely happy. The revolution is a windy lady.

    When the autocracy fell, Fedorovsky confidently went up the hill, and no wonder - the Revolution was his element, breaking the old order really disturbed him, forcing him to sing his freedom-loving soul. The winds of change, blown in February, threatened to turn into hurricane squalls for the country, but Fedorovsky was not afraid - he was happy.

    When a person is winged, he either flies up or breaks. Fedorovsky, as I said, gained height very confidently. An unknown senior laboratory technician (he will receive a teacher’s place only in 1918) makes a rapid career. In March 1917, he worked in the Nizhny Novgorod organization of the RSDLP (b), which came out of the underground, in May he was elected a member of the Provisional District Committee of the RSDLP with an advisory vote, all summer he publishes the newspaper Internationale, on the pages of which he once again burns the verb Stepan of Finland. Fedorovsky, who was hiding behind this pseudonym, was nevertheless a journalist by the grace of God - the remaining articles convincingly testify that there is a lot for him to learn from many of the current masters of journalism. Soon our hero gained such popularity both in the city and in the province that he first headed the Nizhny Novgorod Council of Workers 'and Soldiers' Deputies, and then the provincial party committee. After the October Revolution, Fedorovsky, a Bolshevik with pre-revolutionary experience and a member of the RSDLP since 1904, stands at the head of the entire Nizhny Novgorod province, one of the largest and most economically developed regions of the country.


    His vigorous activity, it seemed, did not know to restrain. What he just did not do! It is enough to remember that Fedorovsky became the founder of the Nizhny Novgorod University - the decision to create it was made in 1918 by the executive committee of the Nizhny Novgorod Council of Workers', Peasants' and Soldiers' Deputies and personally by the 30-year-old chairman of the Provincial Committee of the RSDLP (B).

    Artemyev could not do that. Artemyev could not be dispersed and do a thousand things at the same time, he always beat at one point. Sometimes this led him to success, sometimes - as is the case with science - to failure. But while Fedorovsky was reaping the fruits of the revolution, Artemyev stubbornly pushed through the creation of the Moscow Mining Academy. Through Moscow merchants, he went with the idea to the Provisional Government - but to no avail. In April 1917, the Coal Industrialists ’Congress of Southern Russia was held, and a little later, the II Coal Industrialists’ Congress of Central Russia - he gave a performance there of one of his associates, mining engineer G.V. Klyuchansky with a report "On Mining and Technical Education." And everyone seemed to agree, both congresses recognized the establishment of a mining university in Moscow as necessary, but no one gave any money.

    Most likely, Artemyev’s desire to acquire his own university would have remained an unlucky careerist’s wish, but one day Fedorovsky suddenly appeared at his house, with whom they didn’t meet often. The first friend first of all declared that he was transferred to Moscow, to work in his specialty - to head the Mining Council of the Supreme Economic Council, that is, to lead the entire mining industry in Russia. To go to the capital without your people is nonsense, so Artemyev goes with him. But, it is important - goes with him, but not to him. Artemyev is already waiting for another place - to Comrade Nikolai Gorbunov in the People's Commissariat of Education, who, in fact, dragged Fedorovsky into the capital, such a person as Professor Artemiev is very necessary. And then science in the country to lead no one. Everything, no time to explain, let's go.


    In April 1918, Fedorovsky left Nizhny Novgorod, in late May, Artemyev followed his example.

    Comrade Nikolai Gorbunov, who led the entire science of the country, despite his youth, was bald and full of glasses. But I’ll say right away that the stereotype that has just appeared in your head is absolutely wrong. The hunchbacks were not at all petty, dead and downtrodden. He did not belong to the second widespread category - people in big glasses, thick, clumsy and good-natured. He was from the third, rarest category - glasses for dangerous ones. Of those who, at the beginning of a fight, shove glasses into their pockets with a familiar gesture, of those who have been torturing their body with Japanese gymnastics since the gymnasium years, of those who, in response to ridicule over glasses and bald patches, look so badly that even the most zaboskalnye stagnate. Here, actually, he.


    Or even


    A chemical technologist, a graduate of the Petrograd Institute of Technology, a Civil Hero, one of the first to win the Second Horse, who deserved the Order of the Red Banner, one of the best mountaineers of the Russian Empire and the USSR, who lacked a couple of hundred meters to share with Abalakov the triumph of the first conqueror of the highest peak of the Land of Soviets ... In general, Comrade Nikolai Gorbunov was the clearest proof that the revolution is the fastest elevator.

    Any revolution, as we remember from the 1990s, is a power vacuum, and any person who finds himself in the right place at the right time with the right skills can take off to an unattainable height in peacetime.

    During the February Revolution, Gorbunov was nobody and his name was in any way. But already in May of the 17th young (25 years old), but the promising Bolshevik agitator notices and approaches Lunacharsky. Already in June, Gorbunov was appointed head of the Information Bureau of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee. And on the fourth day after the October Revolution, on the recommendation of Bonch-Bruevich, Comrade Gorbunov, as having demonstrated outstanding organizational skills, was invited to the legendary room No. 67 of the Smolny Institute. In the office of the leader of the revolution, Vladimir Ulyanov (Lenin). A dangerous bespectacled man leaves the office as secretary of the Council of People's Commissars and Lenin’s personal secretary.

    This secretary Gorbunov kept the first protocols and signed the first decrees of the Soviet power - his signature stands after the signature of V. I. Lenin on the decrees on the abolition of estates, on the formation of the Red Army, on granting independence to Finland, etc. In the first, craziest months, Gorbunov, like other members of the Bolshevik government, had to grab at everything - and deliver weapons to the scene of hostilities against Krasnov's unions, and take the first money of the Soviet government from saboteurs from the State Bank, and participate in the development of the Emblem of the RSFSR ...

    Evidence of that cheerful and tumultuous time when a group of young and committed people, straining their veins, turned Russia into a bright future, when everyone was on a par, and only Ilyich was the first among equals - this humorous note remained. How this piece of paper managed to survive the entire twentieth century, and no one destroyed it from harm's way - I do not even guess. But the note remained, and today it is kept in the archives of the Gorbunov family.


    But I digress. On the proposal of Gorbunov on August 16, 1918, the Council of People's Commissars created the Scientific and Technical Department of the High Council of National Economy. It was such a special body created to become"At the head of all scientific and technological institutions, societies, organizations, laboratories, etc., located within the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, in order to unite them and distribute among them all the tasks of Soviet power . " It was for this project that he came from Nizhny Artemyev, it was he who mainly prepared and promoted it - Gorbunov still had a lot of work in the secretariat.

    At that time, the Bolsheviks did not care about the frames, and in this story the faces that are already familiar to us are flashing for the most part. As soon as the department was created, the Presidium of the Supreme Economic Council approved the members of the board of the Scientific and Technical Department of the Supreme Economic Council, tt. Gorbunova, Artemyev, Eichenwald, and temporarily, until the deputy was sought, comrade Fedorovsky. ” And the Presidium of the Scientific Commission established under the Scientific and Technical Association included almost exclusively colleagues of Artemyev and Fedorovsky, entirely miners and geologists. Academician Pyotr Lazarev became chairman of the commission, Ivan Gubkin became the chairman’s deputy (deputy), Nikolai Kulagin, zoologist and beekeeper, future director of the Moscow Zoo, scientific secretary, commissioners V.A. Henri and A.E. Fersman (and don’t have to giggle, don’t funny already).

    Sometimes people just sprung from nothing, like mice from rags - from somewhere the young astronomer Vartan Tigranovich Ter-Oganezov undertook, and soon this recent student, just before the revolution who graduated from St. Petersburg university, was already actively involved in the development of higher education reform in the country.

    In general, of course, the time was exceptional. It is impossible to read the minutes of these meetings without emotion, which were usually conducted by the French physiologist and physical chemist Viktor Alekseevich Henri - a child of the two countries, a bastard from the famous Lyapunov family, who lived in Paris from 14 years old, but returned to his historic homeland and remained in Soviet Russia because of its grandeur happening. In these protocols, so much youth, so much dream, so much freshness, so much conviction and a thirst to create, that sometimes it is just enviable.

    Professor Victor Henri

    And at night, Gorbunov wrote letters to Lenin:“Dear Comrade Lenin! I really needed to talk with you about my work, but I think it will turn out badly for me. I really need your moral support now, and therefore I decided to write this letter. In order to continue to continue my work of swinging Russian science and adapting it to the needs of the Republic, in order to continue to devote myself entirely to this work, perhaps even imperceptible at first, it is imperative for me to know whether you consider my work important and necessary. It is very difficult to move our scientific forces from a dead, fixed point, on which they have frozen for decades. It is very difficult to break the wall into which science has closed, fleeing from life. We have to build new forms, break, build again. How many mistakes we have already done! But the results are already evident. Old professors and scientists come to us and light up with creative energy ... "

    And young scientists ... Young scientists were young and confident that the world belongs to them.

    It was then, somehow between time and time, that Artemyev and Fedorovsky fulfilled their long-held dream - on September 4, 1918, the Decree of the Council of People's Commissars on the establishment of the Moscow Mining Academy was signed.

    Artemyev became its rector. I think you will not be surprised to learn that soon Fedorovsky, Arshinov, Lazarev, Gubkin, and Ter-Oganezov began to work there ... In general, Winnie the Pooh and all, everything, the series is regular.

    Career Artemyev was still going uphill - in mid-October 1918 he was already in charge of the department of the Higher School of the People's Commissariat of Education. And in January 1919, he reached the peak of his career - a recent provincial professor was confirmed as head of the Scientific Department of the People's Commissariat, from time to time he replaces Commissar of Education Lunacharsky.


    A company of friends with large positions, moreover, having a direct access to Lenin through Gorbunov, was then almost omnipotent. In general, the dream of a man who had been a notebook careerist since his student days has come true - Artemyev became a big boss.

    Becoming a big boss in the revolution is not difficult. It is difficult to remain a big boss when the period of romantic revolutionary euphoria ends and the inexorable laws of the apparatus of power come into their own. That same power, which in Russia is unchanged under all regimes - with bureaucracy, clans, “exits”, mutual obligations, informal agreements, hardware makli, power vertical and horizontal rotations, leather chairs, copper asses, steel grip and other cute attributes without which government structures do not function.

    Soon Professor Artemyev had already observed how people who were rejected by time began to flush out of power with objective relentlessness — too weak, too greedy, too naive, too harsh, too stupid, too honest, lost banks, huddled on their laurels, lamely poor, or just poor fellows who lost their patron.

    Artemiev, perhaps, had chances - his character fully corresponded to the Russian authorities. But first, Gorbunova is sent to the Revolutionary Military Council of the Southern Front and the dangerous bespectacled man disappears until the end of the Civil War. Then Fedorovsky is sent to work in Berlin. Soviet Russia needed to break off foreign isolation by favorite means, and who would break it, if not Germany, is another world pariah. Well, at the end of the banquet, while Fedorovsky behind the barrier negotiated procurement and met with Einstein, Artemyev in Moscow seriously messed up. In the conflict over the reform of the Academy of Sciences Artemyev with Ter-Oganezov, who had become his deputy for the Scientific Department by that time, took the wrong side. And they were not pulled up by anyone, but Vladimir Ilyich Lenin himself. “It’s not necessary to let some Communist fanatics eat the Academy!” Ilyich said then, and the shares of Artemyev and Ter-Oganezov collapsed with a swift jack. In general, after the reorganization of the People's Commissariat of Education in February 1921, Artemyev got only the position of one of the 16 members of the scientific and technical subsection of the State Scientific Council.


    What cannot be taken away from the professor is a unique scent for change, the notorious “chuika”. Artemyev understood everything, made conclusions and made a decision. At the end of November 1921 on behalf of the People's Commissariat of Education and the People's Commissar of Foreign Trade D.N. Artemyev went on a business trip to Sweden and Germany. Back to Soviet Russia, Professor D.N. Artemyev did not return.

    Ran away.

    And not just run away, but run away badly. Dastardly escaped, if you call a spade a spade. His departure for the cordon was not a spontaneous decision - he was well prepared for escape, did not forget even to take with himself a voluminous manuscript of his main work, the four-volume monograph “Crystallography”. Academician Vernadsky later assumed that Artemyev tried to flee abroad in March 1921, during a business trip to Smolensk. K.V. Flint, the wife of the Crystal Flint crystallographer who worked at the Moscow Mining Academy:“As a mineralogist, he (Artemyev - VN) was admitted to the commission for the sale of jewels in Soviet times ... Using his position in this commission, he collected a box of jewels and tried to escape with it abroad, but was detained at the border and returned to Moscow. For the old revolutionary achievements, apparently, was forgiven, as he continued to work after the escape ” . Academician Obruchev, the pro-rector of the MGA and the author of Sannikov's Land, also says about the same thing: “D.N. Artemyev soon went abroad and, as evil tongues said, took a suitcase with precious stones, which he bought cheaply during the civil war. He did not go back and became an emigrant. ”

    However, God bless them, with diamonds - after all, no evidence of this “diamond suitcase” exists. The professor can be forgiven even for the fact that with his flight he very seriously set both Gorbunov and Fedorovsky. But what’s really hard to understand is that Artemyev left to the mercy of fate an old woman who lived with him in a residential block of the Moscow Mining Academy. The researchers found a statement by citizen Yekaterina Vladimirovna Artemyeva on March 7, 1922: “I ask you to file a petition for resuming the issuance of an academic ration taken from me in view of the departure of my son, prof. D.N. Artemyeva abroad on a business trip. I am fully dependent on my son, I am 68 years old, and without his support I cannot survive ... ”.


    Judging by the surviving documents, she was still given rations, and until July 1922, after which the traces of the elderly woman were lost, and nothing was known about her future fate. At least she was no longer in the academy when, in the former apartment of the rector D.N. In March 1923, Artemyev was brought in by Vice-Rector V.A. Hoop.

    Abroad, the quick rector returns to the profession of crystallographer. And although his business was not going well, the white emigration was not going to forgive him for joining the party. service to the Bolsheviks and other sins - in 1923-1924. Artemyev, nevertheless, is beginning to actively cooperate with the Berlin Russian-language publishing houses. In particular, in the publishing house of I. P. Ladyzhnikov in the “Library of Knowledge” series in 1923, his main work “Crystallography” was published.


    And in 1924, in the fate of Dmitry Artemyev, there was another sharp turn. He adopted Catholicism, for five years he studied theology in Innsbruck and Vienna, in 1929 he was ordained priest of the Uniate Church. In 1929–1934 he served in Vienna, in the summer of 1934 he was appointed rector of the Russian Catholic mission in Brussels.

    Why did he turn to religion? This, of course, only my assumptions, but, in my opinion, the point is this. Artemyev, as you probably already understood, was a very rational person, practical to cynicism. From the experience of communicating with such people, I noticed that they, strangely enough, suffer greatly from their rationality, correctness and logic. Do you know why?

    Because they see what is deprived.

    Artemyev, as it seems to me, suffered all his life from the absence of this sacred fire inside. He was too calculating, he was not familiar with the madness that causes people to do unreasonable things. He always lacked faith - the faith that he saw every day with others. Fedorovskiy’s true faith in the Revolution, genuine Arshinov’s patriotism, or Fersman’s sincere faith in human reason and the triumph of science.

    His adoption of dignity is, in my opinion, an attempt to somehow drown out, to somehow fill the sucking emptiness inside. Whether this attempt turned out to be successful or turned into another fiasco - we can only guess, but those who have information do not set up an optimistic mood. Those single testimonies about the life of Artemyev after the adoption of dignity, which historians have, say rather that Artemyev remained Artemyev.

    Thus, a letter was recently discovered from the church elder of Prince Nikolai Sergeevich Trubetskoy to the son of academician Vernadsky. There, in particular, he writes about our hero as follows: “From Catholic sources I learned that he has the task to conduct Uniate propaganda among Russian emigrants. He carries out his task somehow unsympathetically. He tries to use the strife of the Russian colony, by gossiping and setting up, he restores the parishioners against the superior, deepens the split between the Antonyans and the Evlogians, etc. ... I personally do not know him at all, since I only spoke to him, and I really didn’t like him . Maria Frankfuter, the former secretary of Lev Tolstoy, V. F. Bulgakov, wrote about the same thing:“Sorry for the advice, but I do not advise you to get involved with Professor Artemyev,“ you shouldn’t make any money ”.

    But here is the second and last photo of Artemyev, available to researchers.


    The first was made at the beginning of life, upon admission to the university, the second - at its expiration, because the traces of our hero are completely lost before the war, in the mid-thirties. There were rumors in the emigrant community that he died in Belgium in the winter of 45-46, but, as one of today's thinkers says, this is not certain.

    We still do not know for certain how the life ended, which the academician Fersman performing the special duties in this text put into several lines:“Next to me, D.N. Artemyev, a representative of the golden youth, a brilliant researcher of crystallography at the school of E.S. Fedorov, then a prominent worker of the People's Commissariat of Education, the first rector of the Mining Academy in Moscow, a speculator with diamonds and precious stones who fled abroad, again a crystallographer who published an excellent guide to crystallography in Berlin, and finally the abbot of the largest Catholic monastery in southern France, and now they say, cardinal. "

    And what about Fedorovsky?

    A year after Artemyev fled Soviet Russia, Fedorovsky returned there. He accepted the department of mineralogy and crystallography at the MGA after the former rector, but didn’t pretend to have more, despite the co-founder’s status - after Artemyev’s flight, students and teachers chose Ivan Gubkin as rector, and this turned out to be a very good choice.


    During the two years that Fedorovsky spent abroad, he completely flew out of the cage of the first echelon of those in power. Reasonably did not play the king of the mountain again: and Artemyev fairly set up, and the possibilities of the former were no longer there. Although Gorbunov was still in the enviable position of business manager of the Council of People's Commissars of the RSFSR, and then of the USSR, his influence after Lenin's death dropped dramatically. Yes, and Gorbunov passed several times, because the death of the leader for him was a deep personal tragedy. It was Gorbunov, who came to Gorki to say goodbye, took the most expensive thing he had with his french coat - the Order of the Red Banner - and hitched him on Ilyich’s chest. It was the Gorbunov Order that was seen by the visitors of the Mausoleum on Lenin's jacket until 1938, when he was replaced by the order that was awarded to Clara Zetkin.


    In general, Fedorovsky didn’t go into the power again. Mobilizing the remnants of the former influence, he held at the top a decision on the creation of a large mineralogical institute on the basis of Artemyevskaya Litogei and engaged in what he had always dreamed of doing - science. And, it must be said, he came to the position of director of the scientific research institute ideally, entered without a gap, like a cartridge in the chamber. And VIMS under his leadership did very, very much, how little any other institution. And Fedorovsky himself showed himself not only as an administrator, but also as a serious scientist, absolutely honestly earning the title of corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences.

    Then ... Then the terrible for the old communists of the 30s happened, and Fedorovsky had to drink this bitter cup to the bottom. Yes, he was not shot as Gorbunov in 1938. But he also received 15 years of camps without the right of correspondence, followed by indefinite exile and five years of deprivation of political rights can not be called a gift of fate.

    It was a very difficult life. Sometimes he could not stand it, and then scary documents of the era appeared, like his letter to his former student Zavenyagin, who became deputy deputy commissar of the NKVD:“From now until now, i.e. for almost three months, I have been on a landmark trip in the most difficult conditions - on a par with convicts, gangsters, and recidivists. Since I did not take me to Norilsklag, where I was sent, I traveled to Krasnoyarsk - Irkutsk and back to Novosibirsk, lying on bare plank beds, on a starvation ration. Meanwhile, I am already 60 years old, and having exhausted my last strength, I desperately appeal to you with the request ... to stop my torment, replacing the transfer by special escort ... not to send me to the northern camps, since my health is tantamount to a death sentence. "

    But what is important is that, being in power, Fedorovsky very often helped people. When the Cheka arrested his teacher Vernadsky in 1921, he did not hesitate a second:“Academician Vernadsky, one of the most noblest people of our era, one of the last humanists, is already of advanced age and poor health. I ask you, People's Commissar, to take the most energetic measures for his immediate release ... ”

    Fedorovsky and Vernadsky in 1934.

    When Fedorovsky himself was in trouble, people helped him. A colleague in the Moscow Mining Academy, Academician Obruchev, wrote to Stalin after the war, in 1946:“I consider N.M. Fedorovskiy is a good mineralogist, the initiator of scientific research of fossil wealth, who brought a lot of benefits to socialist construction and the success of the industrialization of our Motherland. I do not know what N.M. was accused of. Fedorovsky in 1937, but I am sure that he was not a malicious wrecker, an enemy of the Soviet Union. He could make any mistakes that no one is immune from. But 9 years have passed since then, and it could be returned to free labor ... ”.

    Despite the resolution of Beria "t. Abakumovu V.S. Check and give a conclusion "- not returned. Fedorovsky served his “huge periods in the long stages” from call to call - all 15 years. He went on geological expeditions in Kolyma, worked for several years in a sharashka in Moscow - he worked on the subject of producing artificial diamonds, and taught at the technical school in Norilsk. In order not to go mad, he wrote a great many verses, but for the most part - not about life, but about geology and minerals.

    Faith is not lost, and remained a staunch communist.

    From a letter to daughter Elena:“I would not like your bitterness, connected, I hope, with the temporary loss of your dear father, to at least reduce your loyal attitude to the party. Personal unhappiness did not make me an enemy of the people. I am healthy, alert and stayed the same as you know me. I regret only the gift of missing time. Let them help me for the benefit that I have always brought to my country, and which I can still bring ... ”

    March 30, 1954, a year and a half after serving the term, Nikolai Mikhailovich Fedorovsky was fully rehabilitated for lack of corpus delicti. It is usually written that when he received this news, he suffered a stroke, from which he never recovered, but this is a legend - he suffered a stroke before rehabilitation, when he lived in Norilsk after serving his term as a special settler without the right to travel around the country.


    After rehabilitation, Elena went to Norilsk to pick up her father, whom she had not seen for 17 years. During this time, she spent her whole life - also not the simplest one, in which the pre-war problems of the daughter of the enemy of the people were kept together, and the war she held as a doctor in hospitals. The war that took away her husband, Paul Arman, the famous "Major Greize", the first tanker, who was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union for the battles near Madrid, and who died in 1943, in the battle near the village of Porechye, Kirov district of the Leningrad region during the Mginsky offensive operation .

    “When I arrived at the hospital, my father was already waiting on the landing. My heart began to pound, my temples pounded: we have not seen each other for 17 years! But not because we have not seen for so many years and have met, and not because he looked thin in a gray robe, but because I already knew from his comrades how he struggled with his serious illness, as he did not allow he was learning to hold his left hand to eat; how he, broken by paralysis, tried to gradually sit down himself, and then get up; how he descended and climbed the stairs, and how he was not allowed to support himself while he was learning to stretch his clothes with one hand ”.

    And this is the whole of Fedorovsky, which never gave up.

    I began the story about the life of Fedorovsky with a photo of my newborn daughter. It would probably be correct to complete a photo with her.


    This is six months before his death - Nikolai Mikhailovich Fedorovsky died on August 27, 1956, two and a half years after rehabilitation.

    That, in fact, is the whole story about two very different people and their fate. Draw your own conclusions, but I would still like to draw your attention to this. Yes, of course, Fedorovsky had a chance to live an order of magnitude more difficult and terrible life than Artemyev, who “jumped off in time”. But with all this, he had a lot to do. And people still remember that.

    Here is a monument on the grave in the Donskoy Monastery.

    Here is the Fedorovsky Embankment in Nizhny Novgorod.

    Here is Fedorovsky Street in Talnakh.

    Here is a memorial plaque in Norilsk.

    Here is a memorial plaque in the Ilmensky State Reserve.

    Here is a vims sign

    But a plaque on the building of the institute named after him.

    And this, by the way, was shot by Gorbunov.

    In general, it all came together as in the famous poem from the time of their youth:
    In our veins there is
    blood, not water.
    We go
    through the revolving barking,
    so that
    when we die, we
    will be embodied
    in steamboats,
    in lines
    and in other long works.

    And from Artemyev nothing left. Even the graves.

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