WiGig - Wireless Multimedia Content Technology

    In my article, I would like to talk about such an interesting technology as WiGig . From a technical point of view, it will be based on the technology Wirelss HD, developed by Panasonic and designed to wirelessly transfer high-quality content to home electronics devices without using wires.
    Unlike Wireless HD , WiGig will be more versatile and will be able to connect cell phones, computers, camcorders, players and home electronics into a single network. Engineers of founding companies of the WiGig Alliance say that later WiGig will reach 6 Gb / s. Under the cut, the story of the emergence and formation of this standard.

    The need for wireless technology that could transmit large amounts of data has been around for a long time. In 2001, International Data Corporation planned that profits from Internet commerce in the United States would grow from $ 74 billion in 1999 to $ 708 billion in 2003, while the number of computer users would more than double: from 81 million to 177 million only in USA. Due to the expected growth, reliable fiber optic networks should have been deployed as soon as possible.

    In the United States, less than five percent of all commercial office buildings at that time had access to fiber cable. Due to the high cost of laying fiber, up to $ 250,000 per mile, many temporary technologies, including ISDN, DSL, satellite and microwave communication lines have been deployed to overcome the "last mile" problem. However, these methods were only a temporary solution, for example, ISDN and DSL require a lot of bandwidth from the physical environment, and they simply were not designed to use Internet needs, and the available licensed frequencies, from 900MHz to 40 GHz, and satellite frequencies, 6GHz to 30GHz, very limited.
    Short-range, high-density wireless communications devices are needed in urban areas and business parks throughout the United States. More often than not, office buildings, although not physically connected to the fiber line, are within one half mile of the local trunk channels. Wireless devices operating at higher frequencies, such as 60GHz, make it much easier for enterprises to connect to the channel, without the material and time costs associated with the physical laying of optical fiber.

    At a frequency of 60 GHz, the absorption is very high, with 98 percent of the transmitted energy being absorbed by the oxygen in the atmosphere. Although the oxygen absorption at 60GHz severely limits the range, it also eliminates interference problems.

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    Figure 1: atmospheric absorption per kilometer

    Traditional wireless communication systems operating in the lower frequency range from 900 MHz to 40 GHz often conflict with each other when the interaction becomes too tight. This overlap associated with dispersion and uncontrolled propagation of radio frequency radiation through the atmosphere is minimized by frequency coordination, licensing, and by introducing noise reduction techniques, such as spread spectrum modulation. Licensing eliminates dense allocation, due to the limited number of licenses issued to the regions and the method of expanding the spectrum, they proved to be only slightly effective, and the overall noise level increased. In the 60GHz band, the effects of oxygen absorption and the use of a narrow beam of antennas minimize the chance of interference between radio stations. Theoretically, 100,000 systems operating at 60 GHz,

    Weather conditions adversely affect all radio frequency transmissions, especially in the millimeter range, where severe showers can cause as many problems as 20dB signal loss per kilometer of transmission. As the distance of the transmission of the radio signal increases, the decrease in the difference necessary to compensate for the weather effects increases proportionally. Since the radio signal operating at 60 GHz is transmitted only over short distances, the compensation due to weather effects is not as great as for transmission systems over a distance of one kilometer or more.

    At 60 GHz, an extremely high level of atmospheric absorption is associated mainly with the molecular composition of the atmosphere. Figure 2 illustrates the atmospheric attenuation characteristics for wavelengths from 3 cm to 0.3 mm. In the millimeter wave range, the main absorption occurs by the molecules H2O, O2, CO2 and O3. Since the presence of O2 is quite significant at the level of the earth's surface, its effect on the propagation of 60GHz radio waves is easy to model, more clearly the planning process. Comparing the strength of signal attenuation due to weather conditions for 60GHz waves, even for heavy rains they get a figure of 5dB / KM, which is insignificant compared to the losses due to oxygen absorption.

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    Figure 2: atmospheric attenuation characteristics for wavelengths of 3 cm to 0.3 mm.

    Thus, the WiGig alliance was formed to create a single specification of 60 GHz wireless technology. Who is included in it? The alliance is led by several major manufacturers of Wi-Fi chips, along with Microsoft, Nokia and major manufacturers of consumer electronics, including Atheros Communications, Inc, Broadcom Corporation, Dell, Inc, Intel Corporation, LG Electronics, Inc, Marvell International LTD., MediaTek , NEC Corporation, Panasonic Corporation, Samsung Electronics Co ,. Any company can participate in WGA. Prospective members must sign an agreement that provides licensing rights to use the WGA specification.

    And yet, what is WiGig for? In addition to high definition transmission, high bandwidth and low latency, WiGig can be ideal for several applications, including playing games on HD TVs and wirelessly connecting netbooks to desktop displays and storage devices. At least, sellers say so. WiGig could also allow consumers to send video from camcorders to HD TVs without a cable. Since it is designed for IP networks and enjoys the support of Intel, Broadcom, Atheros and major manufacturers of consumer electronics, according to analysts, there are good chances that WiGig will get ahead of some existing wireless systems.

    Different groups of manufacturers are pushing different types of existing home wired networks to switch to HD wireless networks:HomePNA (originally the Home Phone Networking Alliance) powered by telephone wires, the HomePlug Powerline Alliance wired, and the Multimedia over Coax Alliance ( MOCA ) on internal coaxial cables. There are also several high-speed wireless technologies struggling to survive. UWB (Ultra Wideband) technology has been adopted for wireless USB, and is currently available on some laptops, although some of its main developers and manufacturers have been shut down. In addition, there are WirelessHD and WHDI (Wireless Home Digital Interface) technologies , with a speed similar to WiGig, each of which will soon enter the market.

    One of the factors that favor WiGig is the move towards Wi-Fi integration. The fast version of the IEEE 802.11 standard using the 60GHz band, is also being developed now, and chip makers in the alliance are already talking about WiGig as part of the “three-component Wi-Fi” technology, which will include 60GHz, together with the already used 2.4GHz and 5GHz bands which are already used for 802.11a, B, G, and N. The idea is that as you move away from the broadcast point, the speed will drop when switching from one technology to another.

    Intel, Broadcom and Atheros are also hoping to make WiGig an extension of Wi-Fi. They also participate in the IEEE group to create a 60GHz standard called 802.11AD. This group is in the early stages of developing a new standard. The Wi-Fi Alliance industry group, which certifies products based on the 802.11 family of standards, says WiGig seems to be able to complement Wi-Fi, and that once it matures, there will be opportunities for collaboration between Wi-Fi and WiGig groups.

    And finally, links to sources used 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 .

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