The neural network reads lips on 46.8% of words on TV, man - only 12.4%
Frames of the four programs the program was trained on, as well as the word "afternoon", pronounced by two different announcers.
Two weeks ago it was told about the LipNet neural network , which showed a record quality of 93.4% of the recognition of human speech on the lips. Even then, many applications were supposed for this kind of computer systems: medical hearing aids of new generation with speech recognition, systems for silent lectures in public places, biometric identification, systems of hidden information transmission for espionage, speech recognition by video sequence from surveillance cameras, etc. And now, experts from Oxford University, together with a staff member of Google DeepMind, told about their own developments in this area.
A new neural network was trained on arbitrary texts of people speaking on the BBC channel. Interestingly, the training was performed automatically, without prior annotating the speech manually. The system itself recognized the speech, annotated the video, found faces in the frame, and then learned to identify the relationship between words (sounds) and lip movement.
As a result, this system effectively recognizes arbitrary texts, and not instances from the special corpus of GRID sentences, as LipNet did. The GRID corpus has a strictly limited structure and vocabulary, therefore only 33,000 sentences are possible. Thus, the number of variants is reduced by orders of magnitude and recognition is simplified.
The special GRID package is composed of the following pattern:
command (4) + color (4) + preposition (4) + letter (25) + digit (10) + adverb (4),
where the number corresponds to the number of word choices for each of the six verbal categories.
Unlike LipNet, the development of the company DeepMind and specialists from the University of Oxford works on arbitrary speech streams on television picture quality. It is much more like a real system, ready for practical use.
AI trained on 5000 hours of video recorded from six television shows on the British BBC TV channel from January 2010 to December 2015: these are regular news bulletins (1584 hours), morning news (1997 hours), Newsnight programs (590 hours), World News (194 hours), Question Time (323 hours) and World Today (272 hours). In total, the videos contain 118,116 sentences of consistent human speech.
After that, the program was checked on broadcasts that went on the air between March and September 2016.
An example of reading lips from the TV screen
The program showed a fairly high quality of reading. She correctly recognized even very complex sentences with unusual grammatical constructions and the use of proper names. Examples of perfectly recognized sentences:
- MANY MORE PEOPLE WHO WERE INVOLVED IN THE ATTACKS
- CLOSE TO THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION'S MAIN BUILDING
- WEST WALES AND THE SOUTH WEST AS WELL AS WESTERN SCOTLAND
- WE KNOW THERE WILL BE HUNDREDS OF JOURNALISTS HERE AS WELL
- ACCORDING TO PROVISIONAL FIGURES FROM THE ELECTORAL COMMISSION
- THAT'S THE LOWEST FIGURE FOR EIGHT YEARS
- MANCHESTER FOOTBALL CORRESPONDENT FOR THE DAILY MIRROR
- LAYING THE GROUNDS FOR A POSSIBLE SECOND REFERENDUM
- ACCORDING TO THE LATEST FIGURES FROM THE NATIONAL STATISTICS
- IT COMES AFTER A DAMNING REPORT BY THE HEALTH WATCHDOG
The AI significantly surpassed the performance of a man, a lip-reading expert, who tried to recognize 200 random video clips from a recorded test video archive.
The professional was able to annotate without a single error just 12.4% of the words, while the AI correctly recorded 46.8%. Researchers note that many errors can be called minor. For example, the missing "s" at the end of words. If we approach the analysis of the results less strictly, then the system actually recognized much more than half of the words on television.
With this result, DeepMind significantly surpasses all other lip-reading programs, including the aforementioned LipNet, which was also developed at Oxford University. However, it is too early to talk about final superiority, because LipNet was not trained on such a large data set.
According to experts , DeepMind is a big step towards developing a fully automatic lip reading system.
Architecture of the WLAS module (Watch, Listen, Attend and Spell) and the convolutional neural network for lip reading
The great merit of the researchers is that they have compiled a gigantic data set for learning and testing the system with 17,500 unique words. After all, this is not just five years of continuous recording of television broadcasts in competent English, but also clear synchronization of video and sound (TV often rassinhron up to 1 second, even on professional English television), as well as the development of a speech recognition module that overlaps in the video and is used in training the lip-reading system (WLAS module, see diagram above).
In the case of the slightest rassinhrona training system becomes virtually useless, because the program can not determine the correct match sounds and lip movements. After a thorough preparatory work, the training of the program was completely automatic - she independently processed all 5,000 videos.
Previously, such a set simply did not exist, therefore, the same LipNet authors were forced to confine themselves to the GRID base. To the credit of the developers DeepMind, they promised to publish a data set in the public domain for training other AI. Colleagues from the LipNet development team have already said that they are looking forward to it.
The scientific work is published in the public domain on the site arXiv (arXiv: 1611.05358v1).
If commercial lip-reading systems appear on the market, then the life of ordinary people will become much easier. It can be assumed that such systems will immediately integrate into televisions and other household appliances to improve voice control and practically error-free speech recognition.