About military incapacitants
gjf is back in touch.
I apologize right away if the previous article seemed too boring to you, but in some matters I completely lose my sense of humor.
And I apologize if I destroyed the illusions of some readers.
But based on the results of the vote, we will talk about combat drugs. But these are not some mythical preparations that will make the sickly nerd of the Universal Soldier.
This is not at all true.
When I was just starting to study the topic, then the incapacitators interested me the most. Still: at some stage, humanity suddenly realized that if everyone was poisoned by something like phosgene and V-gases, humanity itself would not remain!
Incapacitants are much more interesting! By definition, “incapacitants are substances that temporarily incapacitate manpower”. It is “out of order” - but not to death.
In my life I met information that quite a few subgroups are classified as incapacitants:
Some dumb list I found on the net
- Algogens are substances that cause severe pain when contacting the skin. Currently, there are sold formulations for self-defense of the population. Often also have a tear effect. Example: 1-methoxy-1,3,5-cycloheptatriene, dibenzoxazepine, capsaicin, pelargonic acid morpholide, resiniferatoxin, phorbol esters, cycloheptatriene.
- Anxiogens - cause an acute panic attack in a person. Examples: Type B cholecystokinin receptor agonists
- Anticoagulants - reduce blood coagulability, causing bleeding. Examples: supervarfarin, dicumarin derivatives.
- Attractants - attract various insects or animals (for example, stinging, unpleasant) to a person. This can lead to a panic reaction in humans or provoke an attack of insects on humans. They can also be used to attract pests to the crops of the enemy. Example: 3,11-dimethyl-2-nonacosanone (cockroach attractant).
- Aphrodisiacs - cause a strong increase in sex drive. According to researchers, this can provoke conflicts in a practically same-sex military team. Examples: Viagra, Cialis.
- Smelly (malorant) - cause the removal of people from the territory or from a specific person due to the aversion of people to the unpleasant smell of the area (person). An unpleasant odor can be possessed either by the substances themselves or by the products of their metabolism. Examples: mercaptans, isonitriles, selenols, sodium tellurite, geosmin, benzcyclopropane.
- Causes pain in the muscles - cause severe pain in the muscles of a person. Examples: thymol amino esters.
- Causing hair loss - the purpose of use is the impact on socially active people, to reduce the external attractiveness. Examples: thallium salts.
- Antihypertensive drugs - greatly reduce pressure, causing orthostatic collapse, as a result of which a person loses consciousness or the ability to move. Examples: clonidine, canbisol, platelet activation factor analogues.
- Hormonal drugs - affect many body systems in very low concentrations, which can cause changes in well-being and emotional state. Metabolically stable forms of hormones have been developed. Examples: insulin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, glucocorticoids.
- Denaturants - give an unpleasant taste to food products, as a result of which hunger can develop in the affected areas. Examples: salts of denatonium, quinine.
- Castrators - cause chemical castration (loss of ability to reproduce). Examples: gossypol.
- Catatonic - cause development in affected catatonia. Usually referred to as a type of psychochemical poisonous substances. Examples: Bulbocapnin.
- Peripheral muscle relaxants - cause complete relaxation of skeletal muscles. May cause death due to relaxation of the respiratory muscles. Examples: tubocurarine, ditilin.
- Central muscle relaxants - cause relaxation of skeletal muscles. Unlike peripheral ones, they have less effect on respiration and their detoxification is difficult. Examples: muscle relaxant, phenylglycerol, benzimidazole.
- Diuretics - cause a sharp acceleration in the emptying of the bladder. Examples: furosemide.
- Anesthetic - cause anesthesia in healthy people. So far, the use of this group of substances is hampered by the low biological activity of the substances used. Examples: isoflurane, halothane.
- Drugs of truth - cause a state in people when a person cannot consciously tell a lie. At present, it has been shown that this method does not guarantee the full veracity of a person and their application is limited. Usually these are not individual substances, but a combination of barbiturates with stimulants.
- Narcotic analgesics - at doses higher than therapeutic ones have a immobilizing effect. They can cause addiction. Examples: fentanyl, carfentanil, 14-methoxymethopone, etorphine, dihydroethorphin.
- Impaired - Causes temporary memory loss. Often toxic. Examples: cycloheximide, domoic acid, many anticholinergics, some benzodiazepines.
- Antipsychotics - cause motor and mental inhibition in humans. Examples: haloperidol, spiperone, fluphenazine.
- Irreversible MAO inhibitors - a group of substances that block monoamine oxidase. As a result, hypertensive crisis is provoked when eating foods high in natural amines (cheeses, chocolate). Examples: nialamide, pargyline.
- Suppressors of will - cause a violation of the ability to make independent decisions. They are substances of various groups. Example: scopolamine.
- Prurigens - cause intolerable itching. For example: 1,2-dithiocyanoethane.
- Psychotomimetic drugs - cause psychosis that lasts for some time, during which a person cannot make adequate decisions. Example: BZ, LSD, mescaline, DMT, DOB, HOUSE, cannabinoids, PCP, psilocybin, DET, DMHP.
- Laxatives - cause a sharp acceleration of bowel movement. With prolonged action of drugs of this group, exhaustion of the body may develop. Examples: bisacodyl.
- Tear substances (lacrimators) - cause severe lacrimation and closing of the eyelids in a person, as a result of which a person temporarily cannot see what is happening around and loses combat effectiveness. There are time agents used to disperse demonstrations. Examples: chloroacetophenone, bromoacetone, bromobenzyl cyanide, trialkyl lead salts, ethyl bromoacetate, ethyl iodoacetate, ortho-chlorobenzylidene malonodinitrile (CS).
- Sleeping pills - cause a person to fall asleep. Examples: flunitrazepam, barbiturates.
- Sternites - cause indomitable sneezing and coughing, as a result of which a person can lose a gas mask. There are personnel agents. Examples: adamsite, diphenylchloroarsin, diphenylcyanarsine.
- Tremorgens - cause convulsive twitching of skeletal muscles. Examples: tremorin, oxotremorin, tremorogenic mycotoxins.
- Photosensitizers - increase the sensitivity of the skin to solar ultraviolet rays. When exposed to sunlight, a person can get painful burns. Examples: hypericin, furocoumarins.
- Emetics (vomiting) - cause a gag reflex, as a result of which being in a gas mask becomes impossible. Examples: apomorphine derivatives, staphylococcal enterotoxin B, PHNO, aminotetralin derivatives.
Since this is Habr, and this opus is not written by a doctor of science, major general chem. troops, corresponding member and other others, then I allow myself to challenge this list.
The dispute will be short, one-sided, very unprofessional and extremely subjective.
“Drugs of Truth” must be administered intravenously - and at the same time, a psychological effect on a person is necessary. How to use it in a combat situation? And the “examples” are highly controversial: for example, the “castrator” gossypol is a natural polyphenol, it has antiviral, antimicrobial, antiprotozoal, antioxidant properties, and antitumor activity. I have never met any information that it is used for chemical castration: it is not a hormone of the type cyproterone acetate, from which even a typical macho will grow boobs, and not a neuroleptic like benperidol, from which you do not want anything at all. Apparently, the role of “castrators” in reducing the fighting ability of the authors has changed dramatically after the story of Theon Greyjoy - well, nothing, he then showed himself very well done, yes.
Smelly substances scare off a warrior? This was written by someone who had never been to the barracks.
And yet - scopolamine - a suppressor of the will? Bugaga.
Smelly substances scare off a warrior? This was written by someone who had never been to the barracks.
And yet - scopolamine - a suppressor of the will? Bugaga.
Therefore, I will not try to provide examples from this list for each group. Perhaps they exist, but they are classified, maybe it's just the fantasies of the authors who introduced them, and maybe I just don’t want to :-)
I also get bored with a group of irritants - this is the sum of lacrimators (which cry from) and sternites (which cough) . I will not consider Irritants - firstly, there is also a problem with them - they do not last long, especially if you leave the affected area, and some may even have an accidental file, like with CS in Vietnam (however, after the defoliants I don’t think that this was the biggest trouble). Well, and secondly, as I understand it, reader readers are tired :-)
So,% username%, let's talk about a lot more interesting!
There will not be a hit parade this time, and therefore, let everyone choose his own favorite.
Fluorotan is the most boring, simple and uninteresting incapacitant. It is a colorless, non-combustible and volatile liquid (boiling point about 50 ° C). It stinks like chloroform.
Fluorotan anesthesia is used in various operations, including abdominal (on the organs of the abdominal or chest cavity), in children and the elderly, in patients with bronchial asthma. The use of fluorotan anesthesia is especially useful in cases where patient agitation and stress should be avoided (for example, in neurosurgery, ophthalmology, etc.). For introduction into anesthesia, they begin with the supply of fluorotan in a concentration of 0.5 vol.% (With oxygen), then increase it to 3-4 vol.% Within 1.5–3 min. To maintain the surgical stage of anesthesia, a concentration of 0.5-2 vol.% Is used.
When using fluorotan, consciousness usually turns off after 1-2 minutes after the start of inhalation of its vapor. After 3-5 minutes, the surgical stage of anesthesia sets in. 3-5 minutes after the cessation of fluorotan, patients begin to awaken. Anesthetic depression completely disappears after 5-10 minutes after short-term and 30-40 minutes after prolonged anesthesia. Excitation is rare and mild. Respiratory irritation does not occur at all.
They say that you should not indulge in fluorotan, because in some cases it causes severe liver damage (halotane hepatitis). Mostly hepatitis occurs in people over 40, more often in women than in men. The toxic effect of fluorotan is caused not only by a direct effect, but also by the formation of toxic metabolites (trifluoroacetic acid, trifluoroethanol, trifluoroacetaldehyde).
But since fluorotan vapor is heavier than air by about 6.7 times, it was actually considered as a variant of “sleeping gas”, the drawback is that you need to act quickly, because after the vapor disperses, after 5 minutes everyone will wake up.
Isoflurane also has the same properties.
These are entry level incapacitants. But they discover the Great and Terrible group of physicists - substances that cause short-term disorders - physical or physiological.
Who else do we have here?
Well, apomorphine is probably well known to those who are
All drug addicts stand and do not run to the pharmacy - apomorphine, although it retains some of the properties of its dad, but its main action is different: it is a powerful emetic drug. 0.01 mg / kg causes the following pleasant sensations: first, you,% username%, as it were: pallor, cold sweat, nausea - if you have never been sick, then forward - you are guaranteed to understand how it is. Then, after about 3-10 minutes, you will begin to feel sick abundantly and irresistibly. No, it’s not that “nauseous”, as sometimes after drinking - no: you literally fraternize with a white friend who is probably in your apartment in a place of honor. Hugging him and calling Ichthyander will take about an hour - constantly, with rare interruptions. Then let go - a little weakness and everything will pass.
It is now clear why apomorphine is used
It is clear that the gallant soldier, who is uncontrollably tearing home, is of little use in battle. There is one drawback: apomorphine must be introduced into the blood or inhaled into the nose. To drink it with some water for the effect you need quite a lot (more than 10 mg) - moreover, in a gelatin capsule and preferably with ascorbic acid. This will not work in battle.
By the way, apomorphine often train complete alcoholics. The training method is simple: administer apomorphine hydrochloride under the skin in a single dose from 0.002 g to 0.01 g, individually selecting the dose that causes vomiting in this patient. 3-4 minutes after the administration of apomorphine, they give the patient a glass of 30-50 ml of the alcoholic drink that he is abusing. At the beginning of nausea, they offer to drink a sip of the drink, after which it should be sniffed and rinsed with their mouth. When the nausea increases dramatically and the patient feels the approach of vomiting, he should drink another sip of an alcoholic drink. Usually 1-15 minutes after the onset of nausea, vomiting develops. Sessions are 1-2 times a day. Pavlov applauds.
There are other substances with a similar effect. Here is the closest example:
Nobody gets Likorin, it is isolated: it is an alkaloid contained in a number of plants of the amaryllis family, especially in plants of the clivia, crinum, galanthus, and ungernia genera.
The drug is about 50 times weaker than apomorphine, but it causes vomiting even with poisoning with antipsychotics - which is why we are especially fond of suicides.
I have a personal dislike of this substance, but that's a different story. Fentanyl is a narcotic analgesic. In medical practice, it is used in the form of citrate. It has a strong, rapid analgesic effect. In Russian - stick out from him. And strong. Like heroin.
When administered parenterally, the animal causes analgesia in doses of thousandths to hundredths of mg / kg. The effect occurs in 2-10 minutes. The lethal dose of fentanyl for rats with intravenous administration of LD50 = 3-5 mg / kg. Fentanyl causes a person to lose sensitivity at an oral dose of 0.05–0.1 mg / kg, and convulsions already occur at a dose above 0.2 mg / kg.
Well, it’s clear that the brave chemists did not stop at fentanyl and began to actively search for what to do with it, so that it would turn out faster, higher, stronger. Well, I must say - it turned out. Some successes below.
The most important success. It is one of the most powerful opioids, one unit of carfentanil is 100 times more powerful than the same amount of fentanyl, 5,000 times more powerful than a unit of heroin and 10,000 times more powerful than a unit of morphine. The median analgesic activity of ED 50 (that is, it affected 50% of the subjects) for this substance when administered intravenously to rats is 0.41 μg / kg, the median lethal dose of LD 50 (here 50% died) - 3.39 mg / kg , the impact on the human body begins already with 1 mcg.
In peacetime, carfentanil is used as a tranquilizer for elephants: if you,% username%, keep an elephant at home, then to euthanize it, you should know: two milligrams of carfentanil is enough. This thing is produced commercially: the drug is present on the pharmaceutical market under the Wildnil trademark as a general anesthetic intended for large animals - very high activity does not imply its use in humans. If it’s interesting, then the most potent opioid used for medical purposes in humans is currently sufentanil, which is about 10-20 times inferior to carfentanil. By the way, for animals still use ohmefentanil. And yes, all these “flying syringes” come from this topic.
One of the well-known examples of the use of carfentanil in veterinary practice is an episode of the documentary series Animal Cops: Houston of the Discovery TV channel, which showed how brown bear was euthanized with carfentanil (diluted in honey) for the purpose of safe transportation from a mistreated private owner in the south Texas at the Houston Zoo.
According to some experts, not confirmed by Russian law enforcement agencies, carfentanil-based aerosol was used to storm the Theater Center on Dubrovka in Moscow in 2002 to reduce the likelihood of terrorist bombings. This conclusion was drawn from the fact that emergency medical services were instructed (with a delay and without disclosing the nature of the agent) to use opioid antagonists. Due to a lack of information, doctors could not develop a resuscitation strategy and provide a sufficient number of naloxone and naltrexone used for these purposes to successfully help all victims. Assuming that carfentanil was the only active component of the sleep aerosol, the main cause of death for victims could be respiratory arrest caused by opioids,
I emphasize once again: I was not there, I am writing what is in open sources, and therefore I will say that there are still opinions that:
- Not carfentanil was used, but 3-methylpentanil (will be lower).
- Fluorotan was used (it was higher).
- Used BZ (will be completely down).
In short,% username%, if you still have questions about this - call +74952242222.
Alfentanil is the very youngest brother of carfentanil. At a dose of 0.0025 mg / kg, tremor occurs in people, and at a dose of 0.175 mg / kg, a person is immobilized 4-5 minutes after administration. It is reported that the US National Institute of Justice, when searching for substances that could immobilize criminals without harming them, also used alfentanil. It turned out, however, that it is worth exceeding the therapeutic dose by 4 times, as there is a danger of fatal respiratory arrest. In the end, the researchers had to abandon the experiments with alfentanil and look for safer substances. Especially famous was the synthesis of 3-methylpentanil in 1972, a powerful drug and analgesic, more active than heroin, by 500–2000 times. When administered by inhalation, 3-methylpentanil is superior to many psychomimetics in terms of activity.
Knowing about the properties of fentanyl derivatives, some decided to make their own poison with preference and harlots - and α-methylpentanil appeared. This rubbish is an evil drug, the easiest to synthesize among all fentanyl derivatives. Features: destroys life and those who accept it, and those who make it . I basically will not write anything about him. Sorry,% username%.
By the way, to immobilize - it is not necessary to pump drugs. The following compound also has a immobilizing effect:
0.001 mg / kg causes physical impotence, although it quickly passes. To become permanently weak, one has to overeat: the toxic dose is 1000 times higher.
Honestly: I have already forgotten the trivial household name of this substance, but I found the formula. Use it.
Raising bids,% username%!
Sernil, or phencyclidine, or SN according to the nomenclature of foreign services in doses of 0.03-1 mg / kg after a period of latent action of up to one hour starts to work very funny: a periodic change in the state of excitement and depression occurs. I don’t know how to convey this gamut of feelings, but in the end the body gets tired very quickly. There is a feeling of deep loneliness and isolation, then negativity and hostility. After 8-10 hours after receipt of serum, the symptoms differ little from those in schizophrenia.
If you overdo it a bit, then at 2 mg / kg catalepsy up to 3 days is possible. This is when you sit, look out the window and do not move. But there are pluses - you can exhibit some kind of gallery ...
This miracle was created in the 1950s in the United States and was even initially used for medical purposes until 1965. Since 1979, sernil has been banned for use and production.
By the way, an interesting contingent of your yard may know searnyl as PCP, Peace pill, Angel dust - yes, yes, Aria, HOG, Killer weed, KJ, Embalming fluid, Rocker fuel, Sherms and others sings about it.
Cernil quickly becomes addicted, in addition, this comrade is extremely jealous of other sources of worldly pleasures: in combination with other substances - for example, alcohol, marijuana or benzodiazepines - can lead to a coma.
Friend and companion of ink is this:
This is the second substance from which I forgot the trivial name. Now you know my crappy handwriting,% username%! Believe me, this is worse than any poison.
(Dear BlessYourHeart found that bullshit is N-methyl-3-piperidylbenzylate, for which he thanks, but unfortunately this is not the trivial name that I wanted to recall).
This garbage in doses of 60-210 mcg / kg acts after 0.5-2 hours if inside, and if inhaled or pricked, then after 5 minutes. Average per person needs only 5 mg.
When affected, the symptoms are very similar to sernyl. Soon after intoxication, weakness, dizziness, trembling and twitching of muscles appear, then nausea, numbness in the mouth and speech disorder appear. And in about an hour the main thing will begin. Lost the opportunity to focus and think, a sense of time and space. Coordination is disturbed, conditioned reflexes are distorted. And most importantly: hallucinations. Colorful. Auditory and visual. But the trouble is all terrible. Against the backdrop of an ongoing sense of fear and horror - this is something. To be afraid, to hear and see what you are afraid of, you will be long 5-6 hours, and if you are lucky to grab 200 mcg / kg or more, there will be a complete depersonalization, you,% username%, are no longer% username% - but a little shaking shaking a creature that cries, weeps, and IS AFRAID. Really fun?
So much fun that the most famous psychotropic incapacitants are associated with a hallucinogenic effect.
So, we meet -
By the way, “LSD”, by the way, hides the name of this masterpiece - N, N-diethylamide D-lysergic acid. Well, it’s about as if you are by name.
Right,% username%, I don’t know how and why, on November 16, 1938, the Swiss chemist Albert Hofmann in Basel received LSD-25 from lysergic acid (25 - because it was the 25th compound that he synthesized). Humanity already knew about the toxicity of ergotoxins from ergot, Arthur Stoll in the laboratory of Sandoz even already isolated ergotamine from sclerotia in 1918 - but they studied it in light of the stimulating effect on the muscles of the uterus. I do not think that Hofmann had problems with the uterus, but in one way or another - he received LSD. Pat him (although he has already died, but not from this).
And so, on April 19, 1943, Hoffmann, as a true scientist (hmm?), Accepted what he synthesized. 250 micrograms. Bottom line: after some time, dizziness and anxiety began to appear. Soon the effect became so strong that Albert could no longer make coherent sentences and, observed by his assistant notified of the experiment, went home on a bicycle. The trip turned out to be fascinating: Hofmann's subjective sensations - a very slow ride - did not correspond to the objective: he drove like a stimulated guinea pig. At the same time, the familiar boulevard on the way to the house turned for Hofmann into a picture of Salvador Dali: it seemed to him that the buildings were covered with small ripples.
After Hofmann got home, he asked the assistant to call a doctor and ask the neighbor for milk, which he chose as the general antidote for poisoning.
The arriving doctor could not find any abnormalities in the patient, except for dilated pupils. However, for several hours Hofmann was delirious: it seemed to him that he had become obsessed with demons, that his neighbor was a witch, that the furniture in his house threatened him. Then the sense of anxiety receded, he was replaced by multi-colored images in the form of circles and spirals, which did not disappear even with closed eyes. Hofmann also said that he perceived the sound of a passing car in the form of an optical image.
On April 22, he wrote about his experiment and experience, and later placed this note in his book “LSD - My Difficult Child”.
In the preface to his book, Hofmann wrote, in particular, that he had become a chemist because of his desire for absolute unity with nature. He was looking for substances that expand human ability to perceive the world around him in its entirety. However, at the time of writing the book, the scientist already knew that the connection he discovered not only expands consciousness, but can also destroy the human psyche, leading to catastrophic consequences.
“The deliberate challenge of mystical experiences, in particular with the help of LSD and similar hallucinogens, in comparison with spontaneous visionary experience, entails dangers that cannot be underestimated. Practitioners should take into account some of the effects of these substances, namely their ability to influence our consciousness, the deepest essence of ourselves. The history of LSD today shows enough catastrophic consequences that can occur when the depth of its effects is underestimated and this substance is perceived as a drug that can be taken for pleasure. The misuse and inappropriate use has made LSD my difficult child. ”“LSD is my difficult child,” A. Hofmann.
However, since April 19, 1943, some adherents have called it “Bicycle Day” and even celebrate it. In my own way.
Stamp in honor of the holiday. What's on the stamp on the other hand - guess?
In addition to the symptoms described by Hofmann, LSD causes the following. After 15-20 minutes after admission, unpleasant sensations are noted: a feeling of tightness, fatigue, internal excitement, often anxiety, dizziness and headache, unpleasant pain in the heart, cooling and trembling hands. The skin turns red or turns pale - along with a feeling of heat or cold, nausea and sweating begin. The pupils dilate, speech loses harmony, the pulse becomes quickened, and breathing slows down. Lack of coordination of movements leads to an uncertain gait and inability to take objects. Such a nice state lasts from 40 to 90 minutes.
Then mental disorders begin, moreover, depending on the mental state of people (approximately as during a booze at a corporate party): someone starts to get depressed, someone else gets euphoric, how lucky. Someone actively jumps and neighs, while someone sits and cries. An illusory perception of the world begins: spots and cracks on the walls are perceived as objects, people are perceived as distorted, everything around is painted in unnatural colors. Hallucinations of all types begin, synesthesia is very common - this is when it seems that you see the taste, hear the smell - in short, the perceptions mix. There is an illusion of a split personality: it seems that what is happening around, although it is happening, but does not apply to you. Orientation in space is lost, thinking is disrupted - everything, a soldier is not a soldier.
The peak of exposure is observed 2-4 hours after the lesion, lasts 5-8 hours, then gradually decreases. At the end, memory failures are very frequent.
The mechanism of action of LSD is quite complex. First of all, this substance is a structural analogue of serotonin - a neurotransmitter that regulates the state of rest, sleep and energy storage. The antiserotonin effect of LSD leads to hallucinations. In addition to the low-specific serotoninolytic (a substance that blocks receptors of nerve synapses in which serotonin is a mediator), LSD also has an inhibitory effect on serotonin monoamine oxidase (MAO), as well as on MAO of other mediators - γ-aminobutyric acid, histamine and norepinephrine. In short, the effect is quite diverse and it must be said that it has not been fully studied.
For some time it was assumed that the study of a new drug will help to understand the nature of schizophrenia, which is also characterized by problems with the work of serotonin. However, many scientists did not believe that psychedelic and schizophrenic psychosis are identical. Despite some common features, the hypothesis of the unified nature of schizophrenia and the effect of LSD has been disproved.
One way or another, in the 1960s, LSD research was actively conducted - and I am now talking about a completely peaceful study of scientists at universities in the USA and other countries. The most famous were the studies of Stanislav Grof and Timothy Leary. The latter conducted active propaganda of this psychotropic substance, since he believed that the beneficial effect of it exceeds the possible side effects. In addition, he gave LSD to some students, without warning them of his name, as was often the practice during that period when researching psychedelics. Subsequently, Timothy Leary was actively persecuted by the authorities, including because of his aggressive stance on the benefits of “expanding consciousness” for humans.
In 1977, during a hearing in the US Senate, CIA Director Stansfield Turner admitted that the CIA since the early 1960s has conducted a series of experiments using LSD on people without their consent and their knowledge (MK Ultra program). Many Americans underwent such experiments, among them, in particular, prisoners, patients of psychiatric hospitals and patients of oncology centers, nurses, “other medical personnel”. At the same time, some experimental patients “developed the first symptoms of schizophrenia”.
A wave of fascination with psychotropic substances and LSD swept across America, which greatly influenced the formation of the counterculture of the sixties and seventies. The phrase of Dr. Leary became widely known, which turned into the motto of supporters of the use of psychedelics: “Turn on, tune in, drop out” (“Turn on, tune in, drop out”). The word fall out meant the departure from conservative morals and lifestyle of the main part of society.
In 1966, production, distribution, and consumption were prohibited in the United States. The drug was banned even for laboratory research.
And of course, creative people loved LSD.
- When The Beatles recorded the song “Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds,” John Lennon explained the origin of the name of the song because his son Julian christened his drawing. However, many saw in this name a hint of the drug LSD, because it was such an abbreviation that consisted of its first letters, and the BBC completely banned the song from rotation. Later, Paul McCartney said that the influence of LSD on this song is quite obvious.
- Fans of LSD were such prominent scientists as Francis Crick - one of the pioneers in the study of the structure and functions of DNA and Stanislav Grof, who was engaged in transpersonal psychology. Also, Steve Jobs and Bill Gates turned to the drug. Jobs describes his LSD experience as "one of the two or three most important things done in life." By the way, Jobs died of pancreatic cancer, and Gates is one of the champions in the amount of funds donated to charity. Most likely this is in no way connected.
- It is a well-known fact that LSD was used “for inspiration” by world-famous writers Aldous Huxley (“Oh Brave New World”), Kurt Vonnegut (“Cradle for a Cat”), Ken Kesey (“Flying Over the Cuckoo's Nest”), as well as musicians like John Lennon, Sid Barrett, Jim Morrison and others.
- By the way, in the movie “Black Mirror. Brandashmyg "hero with a friend experiencing the effect of LSD is very similar to the present.
But back to our topic. At the time of the discovery of LSD, the warriors and special services had a whole list of a variety of ready-made substances with a similar effect: mescaline, psilocybin, TMA, THC, nalorphine, harmine, DOM, DMT, ibotenic acid ... Even the same N, N-dimethylamide of acetic acid - and that at 400 mg / kg causes depression, loss of orientation, visual hallucinations, delusions and lethargy - moreover, reliably, for 7 days!
But still they chose LSD. Why?
- For a reliable flight, 0.1-0.2 mg per teetotaler and 0.3-0.5 mg per drinker are enough (yes, that's right!). THIS IS VERY LITTLE! Therefore, in interesting places they do not sell LSD tablets - they sell brands, by licking which you are guaranteed to get the right dose.
- LSD is highly soluble in water (in the form of tartrate) and is quite stable.
- The lethal dose is approximately 100 mg per person, which is 500-1000 times higher than the current one. It’s difficult to kill (but from the above N, N-dimethylamide of acetic acid, by the way, 1 out of 3 people wakes up).
- There is no cumulative effect.
- Addictions - in any case, physiological - no.
- "Carries" at least 5 hours - a maximum of 2 days.
So the drug not only fell into the annals, but was also adopted under an understandable and clear LSD code. And also synthesized analogues! True, all failed.
The main analogues of LSD (in brackets their hallucinogenic activity in relation to LSD in%)
- 2-bromo-LSD (7%, the effect is manifested only in 2% of the subjects, 1.5 times more active antiserotonin agent than LSD, the reduction is BOL);
- lysergic acid amide (0%);
- lysergic acid dimethylamide (10%);
- lysergic acid monoethylamide (5-10%);
- lysergic acid morpholide (30%);
- 1-acetyl-LSD (100%, but the duration of action is 2-3 times shorter, and the vegetative effects are more pronounced, designation - ALD-52);
- 1-methyl-LSD (36%, 4 times more active than LSD in antiserotonin activity);
- 1-methoxy-LSD (66%);
- lysergic acid pyrrolidide (5%).
The lack of LSD was obvious: ergot was needed for the synthesis, it had to be grown, it gave little lysergic acid - the product was expensive. The search began for something that would not be worse. And still found!
No,% username%, “BZ” has nothing to do with any sounds of organic origin. And the fact that “BZ” with an error with the layout turns out to be “II” is a simple coincidence. Probably.
BZ - 3-quinuclidyl ester of benzylic acid - is a psychotomimetic from the glycolate group.
It was invented by the Swiss pharmaceutical company Hoffman-LaRoche in 1951 - the company investigated antispasmodics for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases. And what turned out to be inappropriate from the ulcer turned out to be very suitable for other purposes (well, with Viagra, by the way, it also happened the same way).
At this time, the United States military struggled to find possible non-lethal, psychoactive substances that could damage, including psychedelic drugs such as LSD and THC, dissociative drugs such as ketamine and phencyclidine, potent opioids such as fentanyl, and several glycolate anticholinergics funds. And here it was lucky.
The drug was originally designated as "TC", but when it was standardized by the army in 1961, it received the NATO code name "BZ". The agent commonly became known as “Buzz” because of this abbreviation and the effects it had on the mental state of human volunteers in research at Edgewood Arsenal in Maryland.
In 1962, an industrial facility was launched at the Pine Bluff military base in Arkansas. Its combat effectiveness was evaluated during field trials that ended in 1966.
Since BZ are white crystals with a melting point of 190 ° C, low volatility, and high thermal stability, they used cluster bombs that scattered pyrotechnic "smoking" pieces with BZ approximately 1.2 hectares. There were also “generators” filled with 5-6 kg of BZ. Also considered options for the infection of fragments, bullets and other things.
BZ acts as an aerosol at concentrations of the order of 110 mg * min / l - and it is difficult to really kill with this substance, it was noted that the danger group includes old people, children and people with respiratory diseases.
The beginning is usual: dilated pupils, dry mouth, palpitations. After 30-60 minutes, the main act of the drama begins: a weakening of attention and memory, a decrease in reactions to external stimuli, marked oppression and disorientation in the environment. After 1–4 hours, severe tachycardia, confusion, loss of contact with the outside world are noted. Hallucinations are so strong that the unfortunate cannot understand what is really happening and what seems to him. This is a lot of fun,% username%. Chuckle, damn it.
As a result, aggressive negativity develops: a person does the opposite of what is offered to him. And very often - with outbursts of anger. This frenzy lasts up to 4–5 days, residual disorders - up to 2-3 weeks. Partial or total memory loss is possible.
The mechanism of action of BZ is no less complicated than that of LSD. BZ is an antagonist of the muscarinic receptors of acetylcholine, that is, in fact, it is a cholinolytic that disrupts the transmission of nerve impulses with the participation of acetylcholine - yes,% username%, just like V-gases and G-gases, but there are nuances. The nuance in the high ratio of toxic dose to the current: in BZ, this ratio is about 40 times (range from 32 to 384 times), that is, in fact, the effect of BZ is a very, very small poisoning. In short, the devil will break his leg there, but dope (atropine), diphenhydramine and taren (aprofen) are brothers according to the mechanism of action with BZ. Well, maybe not relatives, but definitely cousins.
There is a mention of the use of a substance during the Vietnam War, but only the results are reported to be “satisfactory”.
It is believed that Paul Robson was poisoned by BZ in 1961, which caused an attack of hallucinations and severe depression.
In February 1998, the UK Department of Defense accused Iraq of storing a large amount of the glycolate anticholinergic “agent 15”. Agent 15 was assumed to be chemically either identical to BZ, or closely associated with it, and was stored in large quantities before and during the Gulf War. However, after the war, the CIA came to the conclusion that Iraq did not stockpile or deploy an agent. 15
In January 2013, an unidentified representative of the US administration, referring to an undisclosed telegram from the US Department of State, stated that "Syrian contacts convincingly prove that agent 15, a hallucinogenic chemical similar to BZ, was used in Homs." However, in response to these reports, a spokesman for the US National Security Council said: "The reports we saw from the media about alleged chemical weapons incidents in Syria do not match what we consider to be true with respect to the Syrian chemical weapons program." The chemical was also allegedly used in attacks in Ghouta in August 2013.
On April 14, 2018, Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov said that experts from the Swiss center for radiological and chemical-radiological analysis in the city of Spitz, who analyzed samples of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons from the poisoning site of Sergey and Julia Skripal in Salisbury, found traces in these samples Bz. On April 18, at a meeting of the OPCW Executive Council, its general director Ahmet Uzumju explained that the BZ precursor was used as a control sample to verify the quality of the laboratories and was not related to the samples from Salisbury.
As they say, in 1988-1990, all BZ stocks in the United States were liquidated along with industrial production. Now the only pilot production on the planet, located in the city of Edgewood (USA), allows producing up to 20 tons / year, while outside the USA the total production capacity does not reach even 1 tons / year, since the problem has not been solved for all the time efficiently obtaining its precursor - 3-quinuclidol (because of this, 1 kg of BZ cost about $ 44 - and this is at the prices of the 1960s). Well, they say, I don’t know. But I know that there have been attempts to replace - the most famous is Ditran.
Ditran is actually a mixture of this composition
It is believed that at a dose of 5-15 mg, this mixture causes symptoms similar to BZ, developing within an hour.
At the moment, psychotropic drugs are not officially in service with the countries of the world. But watching some mass events in neighboring countries and not very much - I strongly doubt that this is so. The armies may not be worth it, but the special services are clearly working.
Well, this is the story.
Let's see if you like it,% username%. There will be no vote this time - everything will show the rating of the article.
Unfortunately, on Saturday I will begin the next time for long and not very business trips - and therefore there will be little time for creativity - I will go on another creative vacation. And since time is short, but so far there is only one more or less formed story in the head about yellow phosphorus and the accident near Lviv associated with it, then if it turns out that I'm still interesting, I will share this story with you.
Well, if not - well, I tried.
Good luck and no pain! Neither physically nor mentally ...