Wireless Sensor Networks

    Recently, one of the Riga conferences discussed the topic of wireless sensor networks - a presentation from Leo Selyavo, a researcher at the University of Virginia, which interested me in some way. I tried to search for something in this direction on Habré, but it did not give results. Therefore, I’ll try literally on my fingers to reveal at least the basis of the topic.

    To understand what wireless sensor networks ( BSS ) are (they are also wireless sensor networks or WSN), imagine an array of devices remote from each other, typically of a relatively small size, each of which is an independent sensor. By a sensor is meant that the device performs a specific function of acquiring environmental information in one way or another. In a simple way, a microphone can be a sound sensor, an infrared port can be a light sensor. There are classes of sensors that measure temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, light activity, position in space, acceleration, tilt of the platform, magnetic fields ... The meaning of the network is that all the sensors included in such a network communicate with each other and transmit the received data to the main node is the gate. From this node, information enters the computer.

    A separate sensor is usually built from a microcontroller, a battery and, of course, a radio transmission element. As a method of radio communication, today's sensor networks most often use the ZigBee and Wibree standards that are still under development . Although it was possible to build sensors on existing methods, such as WiFi and Bluetooth, these two standards are designed to minimize power consumption during radio transmissions.

    The logic of the sensor network is organized by a special operating system of the "low weight category". We were shown TinyOS and LiteOS, which are working at the University of Virginia, but in addition to it there are many other operating systems. All this - like many other devices - is programmed in assembler or C, but as part of the research, they also develop specialized programming languages, original frameworks that provide a simplified implementation of the typical tasks of microcontrollers on sensors.

    FSU find their application in a wide range of practical sciences - medical medicine, logistics, construction, seismology. Concrete application examples may be considered.

    Experimental FSU BikeNetIt is based on bicycles on which about two dozen sensors of various types are installed. The architecture of this network allows with the movement of bicycles around the city (which can be easily implemented, for example, in Copenhagen, where bicycles are the usual transport) the network organizes information about the situation on roads.

    BSS ZebraNet- A network in which zebras wear collars with sensors. This network can transmit weather conditions. Although this BSS is animal based, it can function relatively well. Even predators attacking zebras left their collars safe and sound. However, as it turned out during testing, the fences themselves bit each other's collars. :) There was a similar stationary network, where the sensors were scattered in the jungle - which allowed scientists to observe a rare species, sorry, I do not remember any rodents.

    FSU can be organized on the surface of the volcano in order to evacuate the city in time. Or place sensors on bridges to prevent another disaster. Sensors have already tried to place in a person (Lukyanenko had a similar in meaning to the story "Gadget").

    Of course, there is a prospect in these studies, however, as far as it is known, almost all the technologies used in the FSU are currently under development and are still trying to solve the problems of reducing energy consumption, mobility, communication of network nodes over long distances ... I

    suggest that you ask FSU research.

    I apologize for not decorating the text with illustrations - just material on the topic is now available in the form of chaos, and its organized versions are laconic. Additional material taken from the Wireless Sensor Network Wiki .

    Also popular now: