Forewarned is forearmed. Part 1
Photosynthesis, gun, eggs, bread and soda
A pistol (pneumatic) is not only a weapon for hitting a target. It has one thing in common with humans - to release carbon dioxide (it is carbon dioxide, carbon dioxide, carbonic anhydride, as well as dry ice in the solid state). People have not come to a final conclusion about the optimal amount of carbon dioxide: some people think that it needs a lot and that it is impossible for a person to exist, while others say that the less it is, the better.
Who will judge their argument?
Currently, instruments for measuring carbon dioxide concentration are not yet very common, but they have become closer in price and affordability. It is necessary to make the use of the device a necessity so that it is not just a toy, but plays an active role in every room, and along with the familiar thermometer it has become a necessary means of ensuring a high quality of life.
Ahead is a huge field of activity for researchers, doctors, electronic engineers, programmers and other specialists in creating advanced i-ventilation (in simple terms - with brains).
The article shows examples of the practical use of the MT8057 carbon dioxide level meter: studying plant photosynthesis and egg respiration, studying the situation in the office, and finding out the reasons why Mayakovsky tried to eradicate all meetings.
The meter experienced shock at the point of a gun and at a glass of soda, visited the kitchen, in a bucket of potatoes and a bag of bread, sank into the cellar and rolled in a car.
The article turned out to be voluminous and, in order to improve perception, is divided into three parts.
- Part 1: photosynthesis, all living things breathe, shock measurements.
- Part 2: ventilation of rooms, harm to assemblies, the advantage of two instruments for conducting experiments .
- Part 3: graphs, calibration, analysis of the device, principle of operation, fermentation .
Judging by the readings of the instruments, the patient is much better, his cardiogram has already straightened
Like all living organisms, plants breathe around the clock, absorbing oxygen, and releasing carbon dioxide and water. When sunlight appears in the leaves of plants, photosynthesis begins: the reaction of carbon dioxide from air and water, as a result of which carbohydrates are formed to feed the plant, and oxygen is released. The rate of oxygen production during photosynthesis is higher than the rate of oxygen absorption during respiration. Therefore, during the day (in the light), plants primarily produce oxygen, and at night they absorb it, releasing carbon dioxide.
In order for the plant to feed on hydrocarbon food and grow better in conditions of short daylight hours, artificial lighting is used, optimally choosing its spectrum and intensity for better photosynthesis.
To verify the theory, a computerized installation was assembled in which two violets pre-watered with water together with a carbon dioxide detector (stand height under the device 85 mm) were placed in an airtight translucent container 360x250x130 mm. The experiment was inspired by an electrical engineer, and now retired David Latimer with his tradescantia .
The result of the experiment is a graph of the concentration of carbon dioxide during photosynthesis. Although the Sun was painted in the afternoon, the sky was cloudy throughout the day.
Decryption of the graph.
18:17 the beginning of the experiment at a concentration of carbon dioxide of 552 ppm. The container is installed on the first floor of the western window of the building.
8:20 maximum concentration of 1779 ppm.
14:40 minimum concentration of 625 ppm.
8:50 maximum concentration of 1623 ppm.
13:43 minimum concentration of 1256 ppm.
20:37 at a concentration of 1435 ppm, artificial lighting was turned on - an incandescent lamp with a power of 100 W (from old stocks).
20:51 maximum concentration of 1447 ppm.
3:00 AM The backlight is turned off, the minimum concentration of 293 ppm.
11:50 a maximum concentration of 1202 ppm.
Concentration after sunrise increased longer than the previous day. Accordingly, photosynthesis from sunlight also began later. Perhaps the vital activities of violets were affected by:
- a change in the circadian rhythm (night life from a lamp);
- a large amount of oxygen released at night;
- increase in night temperature from the usual 22 to 31 degrees from the lamp of artificial lighting;
- the release of toxic substances from a plastic container when heated from an incandescent lamp.
The value of the maximum concentration is lower than the previous day, since oxygen was produced at night under artificial lighting.
12:37 the minimum concentration of 1144 ppm was reached earlier than on the previous day, that is, photosynthesis and, accordingly, oxygen production on this day did not last long.
8:06 AM Sunrise.
8:31 a maximum concentration of 2139 ppm.
14:05 minimum concentration of 1972 ppm.
15:27 at a concentration of 2004 ppm, the daughter demanded that the “flower killing” be stopped and the experiment was stopped in order to save the plants, because the “cardiogram” began to straighten - the slope of the falling part of the curve decreased, and the subsequent increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide slowed down.
From the start of the installation to the completion of the experiment, the concentration of carbon dioxide increased by 4 times. It is possible that the flower did not die, but only went into the zone of a comfortable high concentration of carbon dioxide.
Leaves that were in close contact with the top lid of the container “soured” (visible in the attached photo album) from the absence of an air gap and the inability to breathe, or from overheating when the backlight was working.
Artificial lighting disrupted the plant's vital rhythm.
The increase in carbon dioxide concentration (ascending parts of the graph) is approximately the same throughout the day, even at night with artificial lighting, when the increase in concentration is divided into two stages.
An interesting range of fluctuations in the concentration of carbon dioxide. Compare it with the one in the bank at Latimer. He reported that the experience was not successful for everyone. Maybe, in addition to the composition of the soil, the presence of water and the type of plant, the moment the jar closes plays a role - the daily phase of the plant’s life and the carbon dioxide / oxygen ratio at this moment? It is possible that Latimer breathed into the jar before sealing, while others did not. After all, plants are not easy - Joseph Priestley proved that plants absorb carbon dioxide and produce oxygen, and Karl Scheele could not confirm this. The thing is that Scheele liked to work at night, in the dim light of a candle.
If it has disappeared in one place, then it has arrived in another
Chlorophyll, found in the leaves of most plants, has an absorption spectrum, with major maxima at 429, 453, 660 and 642 nm (0.642 microns). A good picture on this topic in the article “ Chlorophyll a ”.
Absorbing full-color sunlight, chlorophyll with its absorption peaks reduces the blue and red components, as a result of which the middle of the visible light range is mainly reflected and the sheet acquires a green color. In different plants, the ratio of absorption at the peaks is different, and therefore shades of green change. In the fall, absorption ceases, and the leaves turn different colors.
Hence the requirements for backlight lamps arise - their emission spectrum should be as close as possible to the absorption spectrum of a particular plant. In most cases, light sources emitting in the ranges of blue and red are most effective. With a green lamp, the crop will not work.
1. Photosynthesis occurs even in cloudy weather, but with the Sun it is more effective.
2. The break points on the graph of changes in carbon dioxide concentration approximately coincide with the time of sunrise / sunset (if there was no nightlife under artificial lighting), which indicates a high efficiency of solar energy conversion.
3. The device can be used to select the optimal parameters of artificial lighting.
4. It is said that some plants, such as sansevieria, produce oxygen at night. It would be necessary to check this mother-in-law's tongue on a pike tail.
5. Plants live in sunny time, making maximum use of the energy of light. And no orders for summer or winter time are given to them by decree.
Everything secret becomes apparent at the wrong time.
In addition to sausage and cheese, oxygen constantly disappears from the refrigerator. Eggs fell under suspicion.
Experience confirmed the conjecture - they breathe, which was recorded at 07:27 on the emitted carbon dioxide.
Thus, the degree of freshness of eggs can be determined by the concentration of carbon dioxide. For domestic use, this is not very convenient, but for scientific purposes it is quite applicable.
As it turned out, a loaf of bread was breathing (it was 580 ppm in the background). Is it the yeast that survived the bakery oven?
In an unopened bucket of potatoes, the level was 657 ppm with a background value of 582 ppm.
A measurement was also carried out in a cellar with winter potato supplies, but the experiment failed, because during the preparation, fresh air “rushed” through the entrance hatch and quickly brought the readings back to normal. According to the mind, it is advisable to leave the meter for a day in a closed cellar alone with a recording computer.
In the kitchen, during cooking, the level of carbon dioxide rises, even if the kitchen is equipped with a natural ventilation system. Before starting cooking on the gas stove, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the room was 660 ppm, after completion, after about an hour - 1865 ppm.
Maybe that's why women live longer than men (if the version of the need for carbon dioxide is correct)?
The glass is completely empty.
Pessimist: everyone drank.
Optimist: not poured yet!
A soda test, like pistol shooting, turned out to be shocking for the device. The value of the final concentration and the rate of its change reach such values that the device does not show the growth process and goes to a beyond state, showing the inscription “Hi” (> 3000 ppm). Therefore, it was decided to abandon the alleged experience of “vinegar - soda”, it is clear that carbon dioxide is released in large quantities there. For such measurements, a device with a different operating range is needed.
For the same reason, with this device it is impossible to measure the concentration of carbon dioxide directly in the air exhaled by a person, a siphon for preparing carbonated drinks, and a carbon dioxide fire extinguisher.
Of the six shots fired at the test bench (photo at the beginning of the article), the device only once showed an intermediate value of a rapidly increasing parameter.
From the experiment, it is possible to evaluate the response rate of the sensor to a significant impact. The reaction time is affected by the number of holes in the device body, the location of the sensor and the rate of gas diffusion through its filters.
Videos of the processes can be seen in the films:
1. CO2 meter and soda.
2. CO2 meter and pneumatics.
In preparation for shooting a film with pistol shooting, a gas leak through the barrel was recorded. Thus, the meter can be used to detect the onset of leakage from devices containing carbon dioxide - airguns, fire extinguishers, etc.
Many photos - instructions for working with the device and its main technical characteristics, measurement results, printed circuit board and work schedules are given in album “ Carbon Dioxide Meter ”.
Link to purchase, programs for connecting to a computer, description and technical specifications of MT8057 carbon dioxide detector.
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